# PhD Dissertations by MUM Students – Sorted By: Author

The full-text pdf copies of all University PhD dissertations published since mid-1996 are now available free online to on-campus users.

All users can order any of the University dissertations for a fee by using the “Order” link on the citations below or on the abstract pages to which they link. Additional pre-1996 dissertations will be available for free to on-campus users in the future.

### Dissertations

#### Ahlström, Henry Hans Björn — Psychology

Transcendental Meditation, adaptation mechanisms and valuations

Order No. 9133556

This study investigated the effect of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique on deeper structures of personality. In Experiment 1, it was hypothesized that nine months of TM practice would increase scorings of a specific adaptation mechanism, Reversal II, in the projective test DMTm. In Reversal II, the threatening figure in the DMTm stimuli is described as relatively positive. Therefore, Reversal II, traditionally understood as a defense or adaptation mechanism, could also reflect an orientation toward positive values. In Experiment 1, performance of 22 matched experimental subjects (mean age 42.8 yrs, s.d. 8.68), and 22 controls (mean age 42.0 yrs, s.d. 12.3) was compared on the DMTm in posttest. The experimental subjects were scored with significantly more Reversal II (p < 0.05, one-tail test) and Transformations, another DMTm variable (p < 0.05, two-tail test), compared to the controls (Fisher’s Exact Test). The second experiment tested the concept that Reversal II could reflect an orientation toward positive values by testing the same subjects over the same time period as in the first experiment with SIMm, a measure of psychological health. It was hypothesized that if the TM subjects increased in scorings of Reversal II, they would also increase in SIMm-scores, indicating an orientation toward positive values in life. The results of Experiment 2 showed an increase in an orientation toward positive values in the TM subjects (p < 0.05, One-Factorial ANCOVA), suggesting that the higher scoring of Reversal II in these subjects more accurately reflects an orientation toward positive values, as opposed to increased use of an adaptation mechanism. Finally, in Experiment 3 it was hypothesized that nine months practice of the TM technique would enhance psychological health as studied in a sample of 89 subjects that comprised 33 experimental subjects (mean age 42.5 yrs, s.d. 10.2), and 56 controls (mean age 42.4 yrs, s.d. 11.5). Using a pre-posttest design, there was a significant increase in psychological health in the TM group compared to the controls (p < 0.05, One-Factorial ANCOVA). Overall, these results suggest that practice of the TM technique increases psychological health and enhances an orientation toward positive values. Source: DAI, 52, no. 09B, (1991): 5008

#### Aoki, Karen Martha — Maharishi Vedic Science

Investigating the Therapeutic Effects of Reading the Vedic Literature

Order No. 10237108

This dissertation presents the theory and tests the hypothesis that reading Sanskrit literature from the ancient Vedic tradition of India for its sound value in conjunction with the practice of the Transcendental Meditation ® technique and TM-Sidhi® program will have therapeutic effects upon the mind and body. The fundamental principles of the Maharishi Reading Vedic Literature program are based on the theories put forth by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of Maharishi Vedic Science and Maharishi International University, and the research by Tony Nader, M.D., Ph.D., who identifies a one-to-one correspondence in structure and function between different branches of Vedic literature and different parts of the human physiology.

Maharishi considers the Vedic texts to be the reverberating frequencies of a field of intelligence that lies at the basis of creation and are, therefore, reverberating at the basis of the human physiology. Maharishi explains that reading aloud the texts of Vedic literature in sequence will train the physiology to align itself with the evolutionary sequence of natural law, thus restoring balance and health in the physiology. Nader’s findings further support this hypothesis by positing that reading each branch of Vedic literature will enliven intelligence in corresponding anatomical structures.

My research period consisted of reading Vedic literature for three to four hours per day between twice-daily practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique and TM-Sidhi program. Through a self-reporting methodology, I found the following results: Reading Vedic literature in sequence resulted in markedly improved physical, mental, and emotional health as well as increased vitality, emotional and physical strength, awareness, intuition, confidence, and happiness. While this program is still in exploratory stages, my results suggest that the Maharishi Reading Vedic Literature program may have profound effects on health and well-being and, therefore, holds great promise as an effective tool for self-development.

#### Assimakis, Panayotis Demetriou — Psychology

Change in the quality of life in Canada: intervention studies of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program.

Order No. 8918485

This study tested the prediction that the collective participation of a critical number of participants in the group practice of the Transcendental MeditationŒ and TM-SidhiŒ program is sufficient to create increased coherence in the collective consciousness of society, resulting in improved quality of life. According to the theory of collective consciousness of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the square root of one percent of the population practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program together can influence in a positive way the quality of life of society; this is based on the suggestion that the deepest level of consciousness has a field character. This prediction was tested for the nation of Canada using weekly data from 1982-1985 (study 1) and monthly data from 1972-1986 (study 2). The independent variable was the weekly or monthly average number of participants in the largest group of practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program, located in Iowa, U.S.A. The data were analyzed using time-series analysis in order to most accurately and rigorously estimate intervention effects. Experimental periods for time series impact assessment analysis were weeks or months in which the predicted threshold was exceeded for the combined population of the U.S.A. and Canada.

Box-Jenkins impact assessment analyses in the first study indicated that in contrast to nonexperimental periods there was an estimated mean 4.1% decrease in a violence index composed of the total number of weekly traffic fatalities, homicides, and suicides, and a mean 5.1% decrease in weekly total fatalities due to other accidents (p

#### Bargerstock, Andrew Stephen — Management

Measuring the impact of computerizing the recruitment information system: improved utilization of inner resources through organizational self-referral mechanisms

Order No. 9605337

Business process improvement teams frequently engage computers to improve the quality and cost effectiveness of internal services. Prior surveys indicate that less than half of organizational employment departments have computerized their recruitment information systems. This survey of 225 U.S. organizations explores both the reasons for lack of computerization and the impact of installing a computerized recruitment information system (CRIS). Mailed questionnaires were sent to a sample of employment managers throughout the U.S.A.

Responses from the 120 non-computerized organizations reveal that uncertainty about estimating costs and benefits of computerization is a major obstacle for investment decisions.

Data from 105 CRIS respondents offers insights about how automation affects the cost and quality of internal employment services. The researcher predicted significant differences in hiring cost efficiency and recruiting response time between two computerized groups, HI profilers and LO profilers. HI profilers are characterized by regular search of their database of past applicants to resurrect candidates for current job vacancies. LO profilers do not or can not utilize their database in the same manner.

Compared to LO profilers, HI profilers report significantly superior improvements in cost of hiring and recruiter response time. HI profilers report a mean decrease of 11.1% in candidate sourcing costs compared to a 1.5% decrease for LO profilers. HI profilers also report a mean decrease of 6.3 days in time to fill vacancies compared to 1.2 day decrease for LO profilers. Both computerized groups report that these improvements were achieved without sacrificing the quality of candidate pool.

The aggregate mean payback period for HI profilers was 2.7 years compared to 31.6 years for LO profilers.

Further analysis indicates that the level of advertising before computerization significantly affects the level of cost savings achieved through implementation of the CRIS.

Frequent HI profile advertisers report a mean savings of 24.2% in candidate sourcing costs.

Results of this study can help computerized organizations improve their data management processes. For non-computerized organizations, the results offer insights about how to better estimate the costs and benefits achieveable through computerization. Source: DAI, 56, no. 10A, (1995): 4035

#### Barker, Charles W. — Physiology

Suppression of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2) mRNA levels in isolated hepatocytes by IL-1 and oxidative stress.

Order No. 9421867

Animals subjected to immunostimulatory conditions exhibit reduced tissue levels of total CYP and CYP dependent drug metabolism. We have investigated the possibility that depressed levels of two carcinogen-metabolizing CYP enzymes may be due to decreased levels of the mRNAs encoding these enzymes by studying the effect of monocyte-derived cytokines on the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in isolated rat hepatocytes. Medium conditioned by activated human peripheral blood monocytes or by the U937 monocyte cell line suppressed the induction of both mRNAs by TCDD, while beta-fibrinogen mRNA levels increased 30- to 40-fold. Recombinant interleukin-1 suppressed the inducer-dependent accumulation of both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a dose-dependent fashion, while two other monocyte derived cytokines, interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-beta, did not. Run-on transcription analysis demonstrated that conditioned medium and interleukin-1 rapidly suppressed the transcription rate of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in inducer-treated hepatocytes. Since many of the actions of inflammatory mediators can be mimicked by oxidative stress, we also treated isolated hepatocytes with various concentrations of H(sub 2) O(sub 2) (0.25 to 1.0 mM) to investigate the possibility that expression of these genes may also be modulated by oxidative stress. Inducer-dependent accumulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs were maximally reduced approximately 50 and 70% respectively by 1.0 mM H(sub 2) O(sub 2). Run on transcription analysis suggested that the effect of H(sub 2) O(sub 2) on these mRNAs was mediated transcriptionally. The reduction in CYP1A mRNA levels was not due to a reduction in the levels of all mRNAs due to some general toxic effect since glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, alpha-tubulin, beta- fibrinogen and albumin mRNA levels did not change or were actually increased, and lactate dehydrogenase released into the medium was not increased, with H(sub 2) O(sub 2) treatment. Insulin also reduced the expression of both mRNAs, and N- acetylcysteine, which increases intracellular glutathione levels, completely reversed the insulin effect on both mRNAs and the H(sub 2) O(sub 2) effect on CYP1A1 mRNA but only partially reversed the H(sub 2) O(sub 2) effect on CYP1A2 mRNA. Source: DAI, 55, no. 04B, (1994): 1294

#### Barnes, Vernon Anthony — Physiology

Reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in older African Americans practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

Order No. 9701126

African Americans have a well-documented excess of CVD mortality which is at least in part due to psychosocial stress. The Transcendental Meditation® (TM) program has been reported to reduce psychological stress, cardiovascular risk factors and incidence of heart disease. A randomized controlled trial indicated that TM reduced hypertension significantly more than progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and an educational control (EC) in older (mean age = 67 years) Africans Americans after 3 months. Pilot research in Caucasian elderly has found a 73% reduction in all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the TM group compared to the combined control group.

Based on these findings, TM (n = 36) was hypothesized to reduce incidence of all-cause and CVD mortality compared to PMR (n = 37) and EC (n = 36) and a combined control (CC, n = 73) group among the African American participants with mild hypertension in the original BP study. After 5 years, an all-cause and CVD mortality follow-up was conducted with data provided from Vital Statistics, Sacramento, CA. Survival distributions were compared by the Wilcoxon and Cox proportional hazards tests. There were 0.0% (0/36) CVD fatalities for TM compared to 9.5% (7/73) for CC, and 8.5% (3/36) all-cause fatalities for TM compared to 19% (14/13) for CC. Both all-cause (P =.045) and CVD (P =.021) mortality were significantly lower for TM compared to combined controls. The relative risk (RR) for TM compared with combined controls was 0.00 (95% CI 0-0.63) for CVD mortality and 0.32 (95% CI 0-0.96) for all-cause mortality.

These findings suggest that TM practice may reduce incidence of CVD and all-cause mortality in older hypertensive African Americans. According to Maharishi’s Vedic Approach to Health, TM enhances the holistic inner intelligence of mind and body, and thereby promotes balance in psychophysiological functioning and thus helps prevent premature disease and death. The demonstrated benefit for the Transcendental MeditationÒ program seems to have important implications for clinical and public health policy for reducing excessive CVD and all-cause mortality in African Americans. Source: DAI, 57, no. 08B, (1996): 4999

#### Baxter, Michael James — Management

Consciousness, conscience, and conscientiousness: self- development, moral development, and organizational citizenship

Order No. 9328459

Arguments are presented from the point of view of both modern science and Maharishi’s Vedic Science in support of a relationship between moral development and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). A theoretical model is proposed, using principled morality as a dispositional determinant of OCB and value-based commitment as a moderator.

The model is tested using a sample of 126 full-time employees from various organizations, recruited from undergraduate and graduate college classes in two geographic locations. All subjects were given Rest’s (1986) Defining Issues Test (DIT) to evaluate the degree of principled moral reasoning applied in problem-solving, and O’Reilly and Chatman’s (1990) Normative Commitment scale to evaluate the degree of congruence between individual and organizational values. Supervisors for these employees were then asked to provide assessments in terms of five classes of behaviors that represent organizational citizenship: altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, and conscientiousness (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990).

Results indicate no direct support for the a priori hypotheses. However, exploratory analysis reveals significant positive relationships for civic virtue, conscientiousness and courtesy in subsets of the data, indicating qualified support for the hypotheses. In addition, a highly significant negative relationship is found for courtesy in several data subsets.

Current theories of the psychological effects of underemployment are applied to the interpretation of these negative findings. In general, the mixed results of exploratory analysis suggest that there may exist both simple and complex links between individual moral standards and performance in business.

Implications for the findings are discussed, with the intention of simultaneously promoting both business ethics and performance. Source: DAI, 54, no. 07A, (1993): 2645

#### Beall, Richard Arthur — Maharishi Vedic Science

Development and evaluation of Maharishi Science of Creative Intelligence® curriculum for secondary education

Order No. 9636933

This dissertation describes a comprehensive research, development, and evaluation project with the Maharishi Science of Creative IntelligenceSM (MSCI) curriculum for secondary education. This science of consciousness was established by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi to systematically investigate the source, development, range, and goal of consciousness. It includes the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs for direct experience of Pure Consciousness, the Unified Field of Natural Law, in the simplest form of human awareness. Intellectual understanding of this experience and its significance for human development is provided for secondary students by curricula in Maharishi Science of Creative Intelligence.

The project began with a five-part needs assessment to evaluate the current implementation of the secondary level MSCI curriculum at Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment® (K-12) in Fairfield, Iowa. This established the goal for the project–to develop a comprehensive sequenced MSCI curriculum which would address the needs and interests of secondary students at the development site and in Consciousness- BasedSM secondary schools around the world.

The researcher reviewed the literature of Maharishi Science of Creative Intelligence to determine what material should be included in an MSCI program for secondary educations. The results were presented in Standards for Curriculum and Instruction in Maharishi Science of Creative Intelligence for Secondary Education.

Simultaneously the researcher organized and coordinated a curriculum development team which formulated broad curriculum plans for grades 7-12, MSCI Curriculum Overviews, with descriptions, goals, and objectives for twenty-seven instructional units. Sample Units were developed containing detailed instructional materials.

A formative evaluation of the proposed curriculum was conducted with curriculum experts, teachers, and administrators to determine the degree to which these curriculum documents satisfied established professional standards. The project represented the completion of the first two stages of large- scale curriculum planning: determination of general aims and planning of curriculum. Future stages will include elaboration of the MSCI curricula, tryouts, field trials, and large-scale implementation, with evaluation strategies for each stage. Note: The curriculum materials are of a proprietary nature and are not included in the body of the dissertation.

Maharishi Science of Creative Intelligence, Maharishi Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs, Maharishi School of the Age of Enlightenment, and Consciousness-Based Education are service marks licensed to Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation and used under sublicense. Source: DAI, 57, no. 07A, (1996): 2827

#### Blasdell, Karen Sue —Neuroscience

Acute immunoreactivity modified by psychosocial factors: type A/B behavior, Transcendental Meditation® and lymphocyte transformation.

Order No.9006044

For the first time, the influences of Transcendental MeditationŒ (TM), Type A/B behavior, and acute mental states upon immune function were investigated. Venous blood of 24 healthy businessmen (32 ± 8.2 yrs) was sampled during two 5 minute sessions of oral math separated by three 20 minute sessions of sitting rest (eyes-open; eyes-closed or TM; and eyes-open). As expected, a significant suppression of phytohemagglutinen (PHA)-induced lymphocyte transformation occured during periods of mental distress compared to preceding baselines (p =.006, p =.01, Wilcoxon signed-ranks). After 20 minutes of rest following Math-1, the PHA response level of the 24 subjects increased, p =.04. With baseline values as the only significant covariate, a repeated-measures analysis of covariance showed the PHA responses changed across trials F(4,80) = 3.40, p =.02 and interacted with the Type A/B group F(4,80) = 3.00, p =.02, but not the TM/Nonmeditating group F(1,19) = 1.49. For all Type A subjects, PHA values during rest correlated negatively with prolactin (p =.04) and with norepinephrine (p =.05) and during math for norepinephrine (p =.03). Total white blood cell counts changed significantly across trials F(4,52) = 4.40, p =.004.

TM subjects, identified as Type A by structured interview, manifested PHA response patterns to math and rest similar to Type B’s. This “Type B profile of immunoreactivity” was distinct from the pattern of immunosuppression associated with Type A behavior displayed by nonmeditating Type A’s F(4,80) = 2.69, p =.04. Other research has reported similar manifestation of Type B physiological responses by TM-Type As. Taken together, the results imply that TM subjects can display the achievement- oriented behavior patterns characteristic of Type A without manifesting the stress-induced physiological reactivity patterns associated with Type A which may have adverse effects.

The findings that changes in mental activity during math distress and rest produced significant acute changes in lymphocyte reactivity to PHA which differed according to Type A or Type B behavior support research in psychoneuroimmunology that mental processes and behavior may influence immune consequences of stress. The finding that longterm practitioners of TM could simultaneously be Type A, behaviorally, yet display the Type B pattern of lymphocyte transformation across trials suggests that consciousness also modifies immunoreactivity to stressors. Source: DAI, 50, no. 10B, (1989): 4806

#### Boes, Ragnhild — Psychology

Mothers’ adjustment after childbirth: Examining effects of the Mother Baby program of Maharishi Vedic approach to health on maternal postpartum health and recovery

Order No. 9933983

This study used a non-equivalent group, longitudinal, quantitative/qualitative design to examine effects of the Mother Baby program on mothers’ postpartum adjustment. This program is part of Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health, a prevention oriented health care system which includes the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique and the TM-Sidhi program. Thirty-one women, who gave birth between February 1993 and December 1995, participated in this study. Eighteen women in the experimental group participated in this program. Thirteen women, who did not participate in this program, constituted the comparison group. Subjects were administered Profile of Mood States, Edinburgh Depression Scale, Nottingham Health Profile (sleep section), and Rhoten Fatigue Scale, 4 weeks before due date, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after childbirth. Subjects were also interviewed at each visit. Qualitative measures were included with quantitative ones to add richness and depth to the data.

No group differences were found on quantitative measures. However, content analysis of qualitative data revealed marked group differences in: enriched family relations, greater emotional stability, restful quality of sleep, higher, more stable levels of health and energy. Overall, the experimental group exhibited greater stability in their descriptions of their experiences over time and used more warm and positive descriptions compared to the comparison group. These differences are especially noteworthy because the experimental group was significantly older (by 6.8 years).

The lack of congruence of quantitative and qualitative findings was unexpected. In retrospect, these measures were designed to address different dimensions of experience. The quantitative measures assessed mood states, fatigue, and sleep. The qualitative measures assessed more global variables such as maternal well-being and family relations.

Application of the Mother Baby program appeared to facilitate a more smooth postpartum adjustment allowing for more harmonious family relations and enhanced quality of life after childbirth.

#### Bonshek, Anna Jean — Maharishi Vedic Science

Art — A mirror of consciousness: applying universal principles in art and theory on the basis of the description of pure consciousness, the universal source of individual consciousness, history, culture, language and art, according to Maharishi’s Vedic Science — with an analysis of the Vastusutra Upanishad.

Order No. 9701127

This thesis explores the theme of universal value in art and theory, and examines selected sutras of the Vastusutra Upanisad, a Vedic text on art, from the perspective of Maharishi’s Vedic Science — a complete science and technology of consciousness — in order to demonstrate that universal value and meaning can be spontaneously expressed in art by the universal human being and that the Vastusutra Upanisad is the expression of a universal field of self-referral consciousness.

In considering this topic it was necessary to address issues in contemporary theory arising from conflicts between modern, Indian, and postmodern theories, and to show how the principles of Maharishi’s Vedic Science, while supporting cultural integrity, are beyond cultural relativism and reconcile the above approaches. Presenting a universally applicable view of history as an infinite cycle of periods throughout time, culture and language as the expression of Laws of Nature, geographic and climatic conditions of a locality, and art and aesthetics as the manifestation of a universal, unmanifest, Absolute, field of pure consciousness or Natural Law at the basis of individual and cultural life, this science presents a holistic perspective on culture, art and theory. Natural Law, the underlying field of the basis of creation, is experienced as the simplest form of human awareness through the practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs.

By developing consciousness through these technologies, the artist can create art which, having an integrated formal unity, reflects the unified basis of creation and inspires the viewer to experience a unified sense of self — the Cosmic Self. This view differs from the elitism of Hegelian modernism and deconstructive postmodernism, where, as articulated by Lyotard and Kosuth, art, as part of customary knowledge, is a language game unable to impart absolute knowledge or meaning.

In addition, by discussing how through its self-referral nature consciousness gives rise to frequencies which are expressed in Sanskrit as the Vedic Literature and applying this understanding to an analysis of selected aphorisms of the Vastusutra Upanisad this thesis suggests that the text is an expression of consciousness. Source: DAI, 57, no. 08A, (1996): 3306

#### Brown, Susan May — Maharishi Vedic Science

Unity and diversity in Maharishi Vedic Science, higher states of consciousness, and a study of undergraduate student development

Order No. 3318934

Throughout the ages, the wise have recognized the unity of existence and sought to live this amidst the diversity of life. This dissertation discusses the ancient wisdom of unity found in the Vedic science of India, as brought to light by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi as Maharishi Vedic Science. It presents Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs as the means to develop higher states of consciousness, the basis for integration of life. Research on the effects of these programs for mind, body, and behavior is reviewed, and their source in the ancient knowledge of Yoga, found in the Yoga Sutra and Bhagavad-Gita.

Application of this knowledge in Consciousness-Based education is discussed as a means to unify the diverse branches of knowledge and support integrated student development, for growth of maturity and wisdom. Undergraduate education at Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, USA, is reviewed, giving insight into culturing higher consciousness in students’ formative years. Research is presented on outcomes of Consciousness-Based education, particularly for student development.

Results of an original longitudinal study are reported, involving 140 undergraduate students at Maharishi International University. Measures included self-reporting of experiences of growth of consciousness, and standardized tests of ego development (using Loevinger’s Washington University Sentence Completion Test, as extended by Cook-Greuter) and constructive thinking, as indicators of maturity, wisdom, and effective action. Analysis of variance revealed a significant increase in ego development (p = 0.04), with the mean shifting from Self-Aware (freshmen) to Conscientious (seniors). As seniors, 29.2% of the students were at postconventional ego development stages, compared to approximately 10% of the general population. Three sub-scales of constructive thinking also increased significantly (Global Constructive Thinking, p = 0.001; Behavioral Coping, p = 0.004; Emotional Coping, p = 0.002). Self-rated frequency of experiences increased significantly (Transcending, p = 0.004; Witnessing sleep, p = 0.002). Students’ descriptions of their experiences are included.

This data supports the value of applying Maharishi Vedic Science in undergraduate education, to help young people grow in wisdom, capacity for leadership, and the ability to contribute to balance and peace in our diverse world family.

#### Calderon, Raul, Jr. — Psychology

Effects of nonpharmacological approaches on cholesterol levels in mild hypertensive African Americans: A pilot study of the Transcendental Meditation program and a health education program.

Order No.9965261

Psychosocial stress may directly contribute to the disproportionately high rates of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and its etiologic risk factors in African Americans. Specifically, acute and chronic stress have been shown to raise serum lipids and are associated with clinical coronary events.

In a randomized, clinical trial with a 6 month follow-up, the effects of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) program and a health education (HE) program on change in lipid and lipoprotein levels were investigated. Sixty-six mildly hypertensive African Americans, ages 25–72, were randomized, at baseline, to either the TM (N = 33) or HE (N = 33) groups. Primary and secondary outcome measures (i.e., lipid and lipoproteins, blood pressure, diet, exercise, and psychological variables) were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).

Baseline analyses indicated no significant between-group differences in lipid levels, demographic, physiological, psychological, dietary or exercise variables. Post-test analyses indicated no significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), or low density lipoproteins (LDL), and no significant increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL) between-groups. However, both groups showed significant positive changes in secondary outcome variables, such as blood pressure, pulse, diet, and psychological variables. Additional within-group analyses showed positive correlations between change in TC and LDL with change in Anger-Out and DBP, respectively, in the TM group. Similar correlations were also found in the HE group. Furthermore, a TM subgroup analysis by education revealed that subjects with high school education significantly differed in magnitude of reduction in TC and LDL compared to those with college education.

This study did not support the hypothesis of reduction in lipids with behavioral intervention in the overall sample over six months. On the other hand, this study did support the use of the TM technique and a HE program for reduction of blood pressure and pulse rate, and improvement in psychological and dietary measures. Furthermore, subgroup analyses suggest the hypothesis that education/SES may interact with lipid response to the practice of the TM technique.

#### Carlisle, Thomas William — Management

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on psychological, health, social, and behavioral indicators of stress reduction and human resource development in the Indian workplace

Order No. 9605337

Reduction of stress and development of personnel are inseparable and necessary components of organizational effectiveness. However, few interventions simultaneously address what may be the primary impediment and enhancer, respectively, of business success. This dissertation assessed the effects of one such intervention, the Transcendental Meditation® (TM® ) program, on cognitive and affective, physical, relationship, and lifestyle indices of stress reduction and human resource development in the workplace. While several organizational studies have investigated similar changes in Western European and US companies, fewer have looked at stress reduction and development in developing nations, such as India.

The study had a pre and double-posttest design (10-day and 90-day) with 22 experimental subjects (TM practitioners) and 23 posttest-only controls–all equivalent-level managers at a dye-and-cast manufacturing firm in Bangalore, India. Seventy-eight data points combined into five scales or subscales and an aggregate of “lifestyle” behavioral/experience items to create six dependent variables, all but one of which showed significance in the hypothesized direction in one or both posttest periods using multivariate Hotelling’s one-sample T2 analyses (10-day: p < .0010; 90-day: p < .0010), followed by paired t-test analyses: Perceived Stress Scale (10-day: p < .0060; 90-day: p < .00001), Occupational Stress Inventory (10-day: p < .0779; 90-day: p < .1187), Lifestyle items (10-day: p < .0063; 90-day: p < .0085), Personal Experiences scale (10-day: P < .0048; 90-day: p < .0004), Hopkins Symptoms Check List (10-day: p < .0008; 90-day: p < .0377), and the Self-Esteem Survey subscale (10-day: p < .0023; 90-day: p < .0377). Further analyses showed large and increasing effect sizes between posttesting periods, “expectancy of benefit” to be a non-significant covariate, and a trend towards ceiling affects that prevented significant change between 10- and 90-day posttesting. These results reinforce previous findings on this procedures efficacy in stress reduction, increased positive experiences/behaviors and fewer negative ones, the development of the health, relationships, self-concept, and psychological well-being of employees, and support its wider implementation.

The findings lay the foundation for a proposed new job stress formulation, the Metapersonal Resources model. Integrating a theoretical orientation known as Maharishi Vedic Science with sixteen contributors to contemporary job stress understanding, it emphasizes the dimensions of psychological non-egocentrism and physiological strain reduction as principal components for both ameliorating stress and producing a state of dynamic quiescence.

#### Chandler, Howard M. — Psychology

Transcendental Meditation and awakening wisdom: a 10-year longitudinal study of self-development.

Order No.9107332

Psychologists commonly define wisdom as highly developed self-knowledge associated with integrated functioning of affect and cognition. Classical Greek philosophy refers to wisdom as a transcendental experience of universal wisdom. The Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi unifies and extends these modern and classical perspectives. It proposes that the unified source of all knowledge and experience, including affect and cognition, is a transcendental field of pure consciousness (the Self) that can be known by direct experience (Self- knowledge). This experience is said to promote holistic human development. Wisdom is described as a state of enlightenment, in which stabilized Self-knowledge results in a fully integrated personality. Daily practice of Transcendental MeditationÂ (TM) is held to provide the repeated experience of transcendental consciousness necessary for awakening wisdom.

To test the prediction that TM fosters growth of wisdom, 10- year longitudinal data for measures of Loevinger’s ego or self development, McAdams’ intimacy motivation (interpersonal warmth), and Rest’s principled moral reasoning were analyzed for 34 TM practitioners, alumni of Maharishi International University (MIU). These variables provided a convergent measure of growth of wisdom, inclusive of holistic self development affective functioning, and cognitive development in the moral domain. Comparable ego development data were collected from alumni of three control universities, matched with MIU for gender and age.

Covarying for pretest score, MIU alumni increased markedly on ego development in contrast to the control samples (total N = 136, p =.0000002). Two of the control groups did not change significantly, while one decreased significantly. At posttest, 38% of the MIU subjects scored at the highest Autonomous and Integrated stages, compared to 1% of the controls. The MIU posttest mode (Autonomous) was three levels above the mode for controls and two above the highest of 30 samples surveyed. MIU alumni also increased substantially in principled moral reasoning (p =.001) and intimacy motivation (p =.01). Posttest scores were among the highest reported in the research literature.

These findings indicate that experience of transcendental consciousness during TM promotes holistic self development in adulthood, inclusive of both cognitive and affective functioning. They suggest that educators should implement TM as a practical means to develop wisdom. Source: DAI, 51, no. 10B, (1990): 5048

#### Cranson, Robert W. — Psychology

Intelligence and the growth of intelligence in Maharishiês Vedic Psychology and twentieth century psychology.

Order No.9000433

This dissertation has three parts. Part I reviews the history of intelligence research and presents the need for a comprehensive, unified theory of intelligence.

Part II introduces a Vedic theory of intelligence, based on the Vedic Psychology of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the Science of Creative Intelligence. It is proposed that Maharishi’s Vedic theory integrates, clarifies, and completes current theories of intelligence, by resolving their major theoretical issues.

In Part III, one aspect of Maharishi’s Vedic theory of intelligence was operationally defined. It was hypothesized that introduction of the Transcendental MeditationÂ (TM) and TM- SidhiÂ program in a university education would result in improvements in ten measures representing abilities expressed at different levels of the mind: a questionnaire on experiences of higher states of consciousness, Tellegen’s Absorption Scale (TAS), Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), Cattell’s Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT), Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, Hick’s choice reaction time, Hick’s simple reaction time, slope of Hick’s choice RT-simple RT, intraindividual standard deviation of Hick’s choice RT, the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT).

A 2-year longitudinal study with control group tested the hypothesis. Experimental group subjects were 25 male and 22 female first year students from Maharishi International University; mean age 25.2 years. Control group subjects were 22 male and 33 female first year students from the University of Northern Iowa, mean age 19 years.

Results of principal components analysis, MANCOVA, and individual ANCOVA’S supported the hypothesis that practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi program in a university setting results in increased intelligence, as measured by: (1) higher scores on CFIT (p <.005), (2) faster simple RT (p <.025), (3) faster choice RT (p <.00001), (4) decreased intraindividual SD of choice RT (p <.00001), (5) decreased slope of RT (p <.00001), and (6) increased frequency of experiences of higher states of consciousness (p <.001).

Furthermore, the results supported the following hypotheses: (a) intelligence can be developed; and (b) pure intelligence integrates and supports all levels of the mind. The results also provide evidence in support of five other points of Maharishi’s Vedic theory of intelligence, developed in part II.

The conclusion of this dissertation is that Maharishi’s Vedic theory of intelligence is the most viable theory so far to explain the diverse findings regarding the structure and development of intelligence; furthermore, the TM and TM-Sidhi program is proposed as an important component of education that unfolds intelligence. Source: DAI, 50, no. 08A, (1989): 2427

#### Crotta, Erika Helene — Physiology

Effects of a multimodal approach of Maharishi consciousness-based health care on carotid atherosclerosis: A study of coronary artery disease patients

Order No. 3131257

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the largest contributor to morbidity and mortality in the world. Over the past 30 years, focus on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and its related risk factors have yielded three major prevention strategies-drug therapies, lifestyle modification and stress reduction therapies. Despite this effort, up to 50% of patients with documented CVD have recurrent cardiac events.

A new angle that supports further prevention of CVD is needed. Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care system, a natural, prevention-oriented system of health, includes 40 modalities for enlivening the “inner intelligence of the body,” which are responsible for coordinating diverse physiological systems into an integrated whole.

This pilot trial compared effects of four Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care modalities to those of usual care on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in elderly subjects with documented cardiovascular disease and two to six CVD risk factors. The Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care modalities included the Transcendental Meditation program, neuro-physiological integration exercises, dietary and herbal supplement approaches. Usual care included the secondary prevention system offered at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, which are based on practice guidelines promoted by the American Heart Association.

Twenty-eight volunteer subjects were matched on age (mean 72 years), gender and severity of documented CVD. Measures were taken for baseline and nine-month posttest. At baseline the experimental group had significantly higher BMI (30 versus 26), triglycerides (177 mg/dl versus 101 mg/dl, and blood pressure (137 versus 120 mm Hg). They were more often single, and had lower income. Covarying for these baseline differences in major CVD risk factors, the experimental group tended to show a greater decrease in mean common carotid IMT after nine months. (Experimental -0.023 mm, Usual Care +0.041 mm, p = 0.07). The IMT regression in the experimental subjects was associated with high compliance. There was a strong correlation between compliance and increases in physical, mental and behavioral strength (r = 0.47), as assessed by Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care procedures. These findings suggest that enlivening the body’s inner intelligence could be an effective tool to deal with the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease.

#### Dangerfield, Bracey R. — Physiology

Complex dynamics in biological systems: Spontaneous variations of serotonin uptake into platelets as a model of signal control in the central nervous system

Order No. 9228948

Coherent fluctuations in the level of enzymatic activity in solutions of purified enzymes have been demonstrated in several laboratories. The existence of such fluctuations involving simple enzymes in solution suggests that coordinated behavior among macromolecules can occur in the absence of synchronizing cues from the environment. The present research sought to determine whether spontaneous fluctuations in the frequency range of 0.01 to 0.25 cycles/minute occur in the initial rate of uptake of serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) into platelets, a protein-mediated function. Such fluctuations were found, and their temperature dependence and response to partial inhibition by imipramine were examined. The level of uptake was determined as the amount of ($\sp3$H) 5-HT taken up by platelets in a one-minute incubation at 37$\sp\circ$C. Spectral analysis provided a measure of the frequency content of each time series of initial rates. The average behavior of many time series was displayed by summing their individual spectra. Statistical significance of individual frequency estimates was determined by Fisher’s test or Siegel’s test. The major findings of this research were: (1) apparently spontaneous periodic and aperiodic oscillations in the initial rate of 5-HT uptake, (2) an apparent shift to faster frequencies with an increase in sample storage temperature, (3) alterations in the frequency or phase of fluctuations in the presence of imipramine, (4) absence of an effect of a brief pre-sonication of platelet preparations on 5-HT uptake patterns. The findings suggest that coherent variations in 5-HT uptake may be organized by factors intrinsic to the platelet suspensions. Fluctuations in 5-HT uptake rate could be due to oscillatory variations of metabolic parameters in the platelet or to spontaneous conformational fluctuations in the uptake protein. The mechanism mediating ordering effects between platelets could involve alterations in water structure associated with such configurational changes or possibly alterations of diffusible chemical species such as intermediates of metabolism or metal ions. Since the 5-HT uptake system of neurons is essentially identical to that of platelets, these findings may help to explain serotonin-mediated rhythmicities in signal transmission in brain areas rich in non-classical serotonergic nerve endings.

#### Davies, John L. — Psychology

Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness: impact assessment analyses of the Lebanon war.

Order No.8822340

This longitudinal social experiment tests a new approach to peace and alleviation of political violence through enhancing coherence, and thereby reducing stress, in an underlying field of collective consciousness. It was predicted that collective practice of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field (which includes the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi techniques) in a series of seven assemblies held within a 2-1/4 year period from June, 1983 to August, 1985, in Lebanon, Israel, Yugoslavia, Netherlands, and U.S.A., would enhance coherence in collective consciousness and behavior in Lebanon. An 821-day data base, recording daily levels of cooperation and conflict, and number of reported war fatalities and injuries, was generated using independently developed 16-point scales (Rasler, 1981). Events were coded by an experienced Lebanese coder, blind to the experimental hypotheses and technology employed, from eight international news sources, including the New York Times, and news broadcasts from radio stations in and near Lebanon representing all major parties to the conflict, as reported by the Foreign Broadcast Information Service.

Box-Jenkins impact assessment analyses indicated that in contrast to nonexperimental days, during the 93 days when the assemblies were sufficiently large for a predicted impact in Lebanon there was an estimated mean 66% increase in level of cooperation among antagonists, 48% reduction in level of conflict, 71% reduction in war fatalities, and 68% reduction in war injuries (p <.0001 for each variable). On a Peace/War Index combining these variables, all seven assemblies showed independently significant positive impacts (p <.01), with an overall estimated mean improvement of 1.22 standard units (p <.0001). Improvements could not be accounted for in terms of changes in temperature, holidays, or other forms of seasonality or trends in the dependent series, which were explicitly controlled for. Consistent with the proposed causal role of the assemblies, their impact was immediate, independent of distance from Lebanon; their dates of occurrence were independent from prior level of conflict; and predictions were not publicized in Lebanon. Results support a proposed unified-field-theoretic model of collective behavior as a basis for a needed new paradigm for understanding peace and eliminating violent conflict. Source: DAI, 49, no. 08A, (1988): 2381

#### De Armond, David Lee — Management

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on psychological, physiological, behavioral and organizational consequences of stress in managers and executives

Order No. 9633808

Although behavioral stress management programs are commonplace in corporations, stress remains a major problem. Accordingly there is a lack of agreement about what stress reduction methods, if any, are effective. Moreover, there has been a lack of empirical research examining the value of such programs for managers or executives. A three-month prospective study examined the effects of the Transcendental Meditation® technique on stress-related self-report, physiological and observer measures. The subjects were 76 executives, managers and other professionals of managerial rank in a mid-sized U.S. medical equipment developer and manufacturer.

Subjects who elected to learn the TM technique were compared to controls from the same organization and similar in age, education level, race, marital status, hours worked per week, job type and level of responsibility in the organization. The experimental attrition rate was 1%. The TM group improved significantly relative to controls on measures of mental health (p =.04), perceived stress (p =.01), physical complaints (p =.02), vitality (p =.002), healthful behaviors (p =.03), serum cholesterol (p =.03) and a composite measure of observer-rated contribution to the organization (p =.01), as indicated by planned contrasts utilizing analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The effect sizes of the TM technique were comparable to those found in previous research involving non-managers. The findings are further supported by evidence from seven prior meta- analyses that the TM program has effect sizes two or three times as large as various other methods used to reduce stress or to unfold human potential, even in randomized controlled studies where the results could not be attributed to self- selection. Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B (1996): p. 4068

#### De Freitas, Graham Anthony — Maharishi Vedic Science

A case study of His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s program for reading Vedic literature: Revealing the effect of Vedic sounds on growth towards higher states of consciousness, enhanced intuition, and increasingly refined poetic expression

Order No. 3053341

This case study examined the premise that reading aloud the Sanskrit literature from the Vedic Tradition of India would have beneficial effects on the mind, body and behavior of the reader. In Maharishi Vedic Science®, a unique science of consciousness, His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi identifies the Veda and Vedic Literature as vibrational modes of pure consciousness and the sounds of these texts as the frequencies of Natural Law governing the evolution of creation. If the Vedic Literature is read aloud regularly after practice of the Transcendental Meditation program, the predicted effect is growth towards higher states of consciousness.

The researcher, who was trained to pronounce Devanagari Sanskrit text but not to understand the meaning, read 35 areas of Vedic Literature over three years, kept a journal and wrote poetry about his experiences.

During the reading sessions, the researcher observed two particular indicators of growth of Cosmic Consciousness: witnessing and spontaneous life-supporting activity. The witnessing occurred when the reading proceeded automatically and effortlessly while he simultaneously experienced silence and expansion inside. The life- upporting activity came in the form of intuitive prompts to correct mistakes in the sequence of sounds. Since Maharishi Vedic Science considers safeguarding the sequence of sounds equivalent to protecting the basic sequence of the evolution of nature, these spontaneous intuitions had the property of being fundamentally life-
supporting.’

Experiences after reading included increased reverence, greater acceptance of death and dying, more ease in life and other markers of growth towards higher states of consciousness. Analysis of the poems written over the three years, according to a model of communication based on Maharishi Vedic Science, showed improved effectiveness in using images and avoiding interpretation in the poems.

The researcher argues that practiced innocence reduced subject/researcher bias and that his observations are intrinsically no less reliable than objective measurements.
Though this study replicated other case studies, it contributes original results for reading Vedic literature and is part of an original doctoral program which trains scholars while profoundly enhancing self-development. Several new directions for research on reading Vedic Literature are recommended.

#### Delfiner, Adam — Psychology

Transcending OCD: Studying the effects of Transcending Through the Transcendental Meditation Technique On Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Order No. 10137550

This doctoral dissertation explores the efficacy of transcending through Transcendental Meditation® practice for reducing symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Transcending means to go beyond and is the process of the mind experiencing more quiet levels of thought, ultimately going beyond even the subtlest impulse of a thought, to experience the silent state of self-awareness at the source of thought. OCD is an anxiety disorder marked by recurring, intrusive, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and ritualized, repeated behaviors performed in an effort to gain relief from obsessions (compulsions).

OCD is deep-rooted and all-pervasive, manifesting across all levels of life, from the inner most self to outer behavior. The two most common treatments for OCD—Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and medication—reduce OCD symptoms but do not address the underlying cause of OCD, which is stress and a fragmented sense of self. To best treat OCD, a holistic treatment is required that not only targets the specific, surface expressions of disorder but removes the root of the disorder by integrating all levels of the personality.

A semi-structured interview was conducted with eleven people with OCD who learned the Transcendental Meditation technique. Content analysis of the interview data revealed that OCD primarily impacted one’s sense of self and feelings (17 codes including 48 quotations). Some of the codes in this supercode were anxiety, embarrassment, bondage, depersonalization and depression. In parallel, transcending primarily led to integration of one’s sense of self and feelings (13 codes with 63 quotations). The codes in this supercode included decreased anxiety, calmer, love, higher self-esteem, self-confidence, and self-trust. Transcending was a holistic treatment which led to integration of all levels of the individual. Effects of Transcendental Meditation practice were most prominent at subtler levels of life—sense of self and emotions. Integration of deeper levels of one’s personality supported greater integration of more expressed levels of experience—mind, senses, body and environment.

Transcending during Transcendental Meditation appears to treat OCD by working at the source of the disorder—lack of integration of one’s sense of self—providing a foundation for real freedom from the obsessions and compulsions that characterize OCD.

#### Dixon, Carol A. — Psychology

Consciousness and cognitive development: a six-month longitudinal study of four-year-olds practicing the children’s TM technique

Order No. 9000434

This study was designed to test the prediction, based on a Vedic model of development, that effortless attention on the “thinking level of the mind” through appropriate, nonsemantic internal speech during the practice of the Children’s Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique is sufficient to accelerate cognitive development among young children. This six-month longitudinal study is the first to employ the Children’s TM technique as a direct treatment intervention.

It was predicted that four-year-old children who regularly practice the Children’s TM technique would develop at a significantly faster rate than controls on a set of basic cognitive abilities, recognized to be interindividually stable, including field independence, conceptual maturity, sustained attention, and impulsivity; and on a set of concrete reasoning abilities which indicate a transition to the next developmental period, including conservation and perspective taking. Three empirically derived factors supported the theoretical grouping of the variables, and were identified as psychological differentiation, concrete operational reasoning, and impulsivity. Also, the first unrotated factor was identified as analytical intelligence (Jensen, 1985; Spearman, 1927).

Seventy-three children were tested at pretest, 40 attending preschools which introduce the Children’s TM technique during the child’s fourth year, and 33 attending progressive control preschools. Covarying for pretest and control variables (age, gender, SES, previous preschool experience, and parents’ educational level), a linear trend analysis of the effect of regularity of practice of the Children’s TM technique indicated that more regular practice produces significantly more growth on psychological differentiation (p =.03) and analytical intelligence (p =.03), with a trend in the predicted direction on concrete operational reasoning (t(56) = 1.54, p =.06). In addition, planned contrasts also showed that high regularity Children’s TM subjects improved significantly more than controls on psychological differentiation (p =.035) and analytical intelligence (p =.04). When data were analyzed separately for subjects of nonmeditating testers (n = 49) in order to remove the effect of a possible meditating tester bias favoring TM subjects, the greater improvements of high regularity TM subjects over controls were even more substantial: psychological differentiation (p =.005), concrete operational reasoning (p =.03), and analytical intelligence (p =.001).

Consistent with a developmental model based on Vedic psychology (Alexander, Davies et al., 1989), these results indicate that acceleration of holistic cognitive development can be facilitated by direct stimulation of inherent cognitive functions through regular practice of the Children’s TM technique, without requiring further environmental enrichment. On the basis of this and prior research, the Vedic theory of consciousness is proposed as the foundation of a new paradigm for understanding cognitive development. Source: DAI, 51, no. 03B, (1989): 1518

#### Duraimani, Shanthi Lakshmi Chinnasamy — Physiology

Lifestyle Modifications and Healthy Biological Aging: Effects of Telomerase Activity and Telomere Length.

Order No. 3523287

Lifestyle modifications such as practicing the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program, maintaining a healthy diet and regular exercise could help to overcome age-related disorders and promote healthy biological aging. Biochemical, physiological, and psychological studies have revealed their positive effect, although the effect on telomerase gene expression and telomere length is poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this research study is to determine whether lifestyle modifications will support healthy biological aging. Two independent studies were conducted for this purpose. First, a National Institute of Health (NIH) funded randomized pilot study was conducted using two intervention groups (24 TM + health education (HE) group and 24 enhanced health education (EHE) group) with Stage I hypertension African Americans.Second, a cross-sectional study was conducted using 19 long-term meditators and 19 nonmeditator controls. Telomerase gene expression (hTR and hTERT) and relative telomere length of peripheral blood cells by quantitative real-time PCR technique was measured in both studies.

In the NIH pilot study, Wilcoxon matched pairs tests showed a significant difference in the medians for hTERT (TM + HE = 0.03, p = 0.05; EHE = 0.60, p < 0.01) and hTR (TM + HE = 0.34, p < 0.001; EHE = 5.48, p < 0.001) in both groups. Dependent t-tests showed significant differences for systolic BP (TM + HE = -5.53 ± 11.23, p = 0.02; EHE = -9.00 ± 11.41, p < 0.001) in both groups and diastolic BP in the EHE group (EHE = -4.93 ± 7.05, p < 0.01).These findings suggest that intensive lifestyle modifications may be effective in promoting healthy biological aging.

In the cross-sectional study, the Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant trend for hTR in long-term meditators (long-term meditators = 0.74; non-meditator controls = 0.45, p = 0.08). Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference in psychological stress in long-term meditators (long-term meditators = 26.60 ± 3.95 non-meditator controls = 43.20 ± 0.68,p < 0.001), adjusting for BMI, exercise, smoking, intake of vitamins and omega-3. Future research is warranted with larger sample sizes to further evaluate the impact of TM on telomerase gene expression and telomere length.

#### Eason, Rod — Maharishi Vedic Science

Growth of Consciousness Through a Systematic Program of Reading Vedic Literature in Conjunction with the Vedic Calendar

Order No. 3475628

From the varied platforms of philosophy, modern psychology and quantum physics, the phenomenon of consciousness has been discussed for centuries. Scientists in every generation have endeavored—though both objective and subjective means—to gain deeper knowledge about its nature, relationship with the brain and, more recently, a possible connection to a unified quantum field theory. In the last half century, a systematic theory of consciousness—Maharishi Vedic Science—has emerged based on ancient teachings found in the Vedic Literature coupled with a modern, insightful interpretation by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Several technologies of consciousness including Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation have been well documented for producing a wide range of individual and social benefit.

This dissertation discusses the theoretical foundations and practical application of Maharishi Vedic Science as a model for subjective research in consciousness, and presents the results of a three-year self-study on reading Vedic Literature in conjunction with the Vedic calendar. The dissertation begins with a comparative view of modern science and Maharishi Vedic Science, the combination of which represent a new paradigm for the advancement of scientific knowledge. The nature of consciousness is considered from several points of view including methods of research, logic and reasoning, correlation with the physiology and subjective and objective views of reality. The structure of knowledge, its relationship to consciousness and its expression in the VedicLiterature is also brought to light with examples of the text included.

Throughout history, lunar and solar calendars have been used as a way of monitoring and giving recognition to the laws of nature that constitute the cycles of time. In the Vedic calendar, the Vedic Devata are seen as the personification of those laws. The connection between the Vedic Devata and the Vedic calendar is discussed at length, with suggestions on specific texts to read on specific days. Through a systematic program of extended daily reading of the Vedic Literature, the author found numerous personal experiences of growth of consciousness, many of which corresponded to the predicted qualities of nature associated with each day or text being read.

#### Elbi, Cem Cuneyt — Physiology

Analysis of CYP1A1 gene chromatin structure—evidence for multiple translationally positioned nucleosomes.

Order No. 9722238

In vivo low-resolution indirect end-labeling analysis of CYP1A1 gene chromatin structure revealed precisely positioned nucleosomes in the enhancer, promoter and transcribed regions. In vivo high-resolution LMPCR analysis of the CYP1A1 regulatory region revealed multiple micrococcal nuclease (MNase) cleavages with different relative intensities suggesting that multiple translationally positioned nucleosomes occupy the CYP1A1 regulatory region in major and minor translational nucleosome frames. In both low-resolution and high-resolution experiments, positions of nucleosomes did not change when CYP1A1 gene transcription was induced with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In clone-11 cells, TCDD-induction globally increased the sensitivity of the CYP1A1 regulatory region to MNase indicating induced alterations in chromatin structure. In vitro nucleosome reconstitution and hydroxyl radical footprinting of the CYP1A1 enhancer demonstrated the presence of multiple overlapping translationally and rotationally positioned nucleosomes. In vivo footprinting and high-resolution LMPCR analysis of the CYP1A1 enhancer region in conjunction with the in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift analyses demonstrated that, following the treatment of cells with TCDD, the kinetics and time course of in vivo interactions at xenobiotic response elements (XREs) and at diverse sequence xenobiotic responsive elements (DXEs), and the kinetics and time course of DNA binding activity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) paralleled the kinetics and time course of increased MNase accessibility of the CYP1A1 enhancer region in clone-11 cells, but not in clone-3 cells. Even though nuclear extracts prepared from both cell lines contained AHR that was capable of binding to XRE1, TCDD treatment results in the appearance of in vivo footprints at XREs and DXEs in the clone-11 cell line, but not in clone-3 cell line indicating the presence of an in vivo inhibitory activity that prevents the binding of AHR to XREs in the clone-3 cell line. The results of experiments presented in this thesis indicated that ligand-dependent and AHR-dependent chromatin alterations occur in the regulatory region of CYP1A1 gene without an accompanying change in the multiple translational positions of nucleosomes, and support the hypothesis that such alterations may be one transcriptional regulatory mechanism contributing to the high expression of CYP1A1 gene in clone-11 cells.

#### Feng, Pei Chun (Petrina) — Management

An empirical study of CPA’s moral development, ethical evaluation and ethical intention: A selected group of Taiwanese CPA’s.

Order No. 3325876

The perception of accounting professionals having low ethical standards and therefore lacking credibility is evidenced by the many scandals globally over the last ten years including Enron, WorldCom, Merck and Xerox. Thus, developing an understanding of the CPA’s moral development and the factors that influence ethical decisions is critical.

This study attempts to extend the research on moral development as a predictor of ethical evaluation and ethical intention of accounting professionals and looks to ascertain the demographic factors that influence moral reasoning, ethical evaluation and ethical intention. This research is the first to examine these questions in the accounting profession in Taiwan. The study first examines the relationship between moral reasoning, measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT) and the two components of ethical decision- making (ethical evaluation and ethical intention), measured by the three questions of the Multidimensional Ethical Scale (MES). The MES instrument depicts ethical situations for accountants. The study sample is 316 Taiwanese CPA’s.

This study has several important findings: (1) CPA’s level of moral development was not significantly associated with expressed intention to perform questionable actions. (2) CPA’s with a higher level of moral development are not likely to express the intention perform questionable actions. (3) There is a relationship between ethical evaluation and ethical intention. (4) CPA’s moral development does not appear to be associated with their age, gender, education level, ethics training or professional levels. (5) CPA’s ethical evaluation appears to be associated with their gender, education level or ethics training, but not age or professional level. (6) CPA’s ethical intention appears to be associated with their gender or education level, but not age, professional level, or ethics training.

These findings are discussed in the light of Maharishi Vedic Science, which provides a scientific approach to foster moral development through experience of the Unified Field of Nature Law.

#### Fergusson, Lee C. — Maharishi Vedic Science

Maharishi’s Vedic science and post-secondary art education

Order No. 9205205

This study examines new directions in post-secondary art education showing that most theories of current educational practice are based on the revisionary postmodern paradigm. Theorists who adopt this view have realized the need to develop students in ways that promote greater awareness of their role in pluralist societies. In this thesis, the difficulties associated with achieving the goals of revisionary postmodern art education are discussed, and the significance of Maharishi’s Vedic Science® in resolving them is introduced.

Brought to light by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and restored to its former status as a science of complete knowledge, Vedic Science is said to systematically describe the total range of life. According to Maharishi, life has its source in the unmanifest field of pure consciousness, the home of all the laws of nature. Through its own internal mechanics, pure consciousness is said to sequentially give rise to the laws of nature and ultimately to the physical universe. Maharishi’s Vedic Science provides practical, universal procedures through which the complete knowledge of both pure consciousness and its expressions as the material universe can be directly experienced and known on the level of one’s own consciousness. Specifically, Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® program has proved effective in this regard.

The study considers in detail the rationale, goals, instructional procedures, and outcomes of a university art program that applied Maharishi’s Vedic Science. Evaluation of this program utilized a multiple-methods case study employing eight quantitative measures and three qualitative components to document the effects. Results suggest that Maharishi’s Vedic Science significantly impacts the lives of students and faculty, particularly in the areas of development of consciousness, enthusiasm for art, and art abilities.

As a result of this initial inquiry into post-secondary art education, it was proposed that Maharishi’s Vedic Science suggests immediate and practical ways to resolve some of the present difficulties associated with revisionary theories of art education, particularly those that call upon educators to develop a complete individual capable of upholding plurality and yet sensitive to the needs of culturing harmony and progress in the family of nations. Source: DAI, 52, no. 09A, (1991): 3158

#### Finkelstein, Evan I. — Maharishi Vedic Science

Universal principles of life expressed in Maharishi Vedic Science and in the scriptures and writings of judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Order No. 3173294

This dissertation examines principles of Maharishi Vedic Science®—the Science and Technology of Consciousness—in relation to the scriptures and writings of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The dissertation is motivated by the desire to test the premise that principles of Maharishi Vedic Science are present within these religious traditions. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are selected based on the presumption that these three traditions might be considered most distinct from the Vedic tradition of the founder of Maharishi Vedic Science, His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.

Five principles are selected that are judged to be fundamental to Maharishi Vedic Science to provide the basis for the study. These five principles can be concisely expressed in religious terminology as follows: 1) God is the ultimate reality of unbounded consciousness. Divinity is the source of creation and is simultaneously infinite silence and infinite creative dynamism. He is total knowledge and infinite organizing power—the unlimited existence of all possibilities. 2) The main purpose of human life is to become fully aligned and consciously integrated with Divinity so that humanity can live a life of peace, abundance, and fulfillment. 3) The ultimate cause of all problems and suffering in human existence is based in the ignorance of how to directly experience and permanently integrate the Divine in daily life. 4) To contact the Divine, one must learn how to allow the mind to naturally transcend the space-time boundaries of manifest creation and directly come to the experience of the transcendental light of God within. 5) The complete and lasting integration of the Divine in human life involves a process of development of higher states of consciousness. The four higher states of consciousness that are possible for humanity to realize are Transcendental Consciousness, Cosmic Consciousness, God Consciousness, and Unity Consciousness.

Analysis of the texts of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam reveals numerous examples of these principles of Maharishi Vedic Science. Analyzing the traditions in the context of these principles also uncovers a remarkable commonality in both theology and spiritual experience. The underlying unity among the traditions indicates a significant basis for increased acceptance and cooperation.

#### Freeman, Marci Tanner — Maharishi Vedic Science

Enlivening Veda in consciousness and physiology by reading the Vedic Literature in conjunction with the experience of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

Order No. 9713469

This paper examines how reading the ancient Vedic Literature in its original Sanskrit could accelerate the development of human consciousness, when routinely added to the practice of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM- Sidhi® programs brought to light by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. The practice of these prognms has been found to develop higher levels of intelligence, power, and joyfulness, as extensively validated in scientific research. Maharishi predicts that this development is enhanced by reading the sounds of the Vedic Literature.

Clarifying long-standing misinterpretations concerning thc nature of this Literature, Maharishi identifies it as the expressions or sound frequencies of the Laws of Nature structuring progress throughout all physical creation. Hence, the reverberations of Vedic sounds express the same intelligence of Nature basic to human consciousness and physiology. This structural correlation means that focusing attention, or consciousness, on Vedic sounds by reading them aloud creates corresponding resonances at the physiological structural level. Through the physiology, Maharishi predicts, this resonance modifies all sensory, cognitive, and behavioral processes in the direction of greater knowledge (intelligence), self-sufficiency and efficiency (power), and happiness (bliss).

The author tested both general and specific predictions regarding the value of Vedic Literature by routinely reading aloud from each of its branches in addition to practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This paper considers this exploratory research by reviewing journal entries of the author’s personal experiences perceived due to this combined program. These experiences included: increased happiness, optimism, and self-regard; emotions, thoughts, speech, and behavior spontaneously more appropriate; greater effectiveness in activity; more efficient physiological functioning; increased intellectual understanding; and a more highly integrated experience of life.

The exploratory nature of this research precludes confirming the value of reading Vedic Literature on the basis of this exploratino, which simply intended to discover the existence of any effects from this practice. However, the reported results give preliminary support to Maharishi’s predictions and justify further research in this area. Investigations based on Maharishi’s knowledge may well demonstrate the potential of reading the Vedic Literature for transforming the quality of human life. Source: DAI, 57, no. 11A, (1997): 4712

#### Freund, Peter F. — Maharishi Vedic Science

Vedic literature reading curriculum, Volume 1

Order No. 3222115

The Vedicreserve website presents nearly 50,000 pages of consistently type-set Devanagari text as an ordered, sequential program of reading of more than 300 heretofore scattered texts of the Vedic Literature that have been identified by Maharishi Maharishi Yogi as the essential components of a simple and universal curriculum of total knowledge.

In this program, first proposed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in 1991, students read the entire Vedic Literature in sequence from beginning to end in Sanskrit. Practical benefits of this reading program have been verified in a series of dissertations at Maharishi International University.

In this dissertation a model curriculum of reading the Vedic Literature is presented for the six Vedanga, a group of texts encompassing the Vedic sciences of phonetics. Yajna, grammar, etymology, prosody, and Vedic astrology. Included in this model curriculum are samples of each text, description of the content and structure of each text, and presentation of the correlates in human physiology, based on the research of Dr. Tony Nader. Fifty-four Shiksha texts and 72 Kalpa texts are reviewed; the Ashtadhyayi is described along with five satellite texts; Nirukta, and its word list, the Nighantu, is described, the Pingalachhandas-Sutra is presented as the textbook of Chhandas, the fifth Vedanga, and 15 texts belonging to Jyotish, Vedic astrology and astronomy, are described. In all. 150 texts belonging to the Vedanga are described, and the proper sequence and program of reading is laid out

For the 30 remaining branches of Vedic Literature that students read, 180 individual texts are identified and referenced, and an overview of the structure and the beginning and ending paragraphs of each text is presented.

Finally, the inner dynamics of the program of reading Vedic Literature is explained in terms of a revival of the ancient Vedic science of phonetics brought about by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Locating all eight vowels (Svara) of the Vedic language in the first syllable of Rik Veda, Maharishi’s science of speech synthesizes the traditional knowledge of Shiksha, Sanskrit phonetics, with the knowledge of modern physiology, physics and cosmology in one all-encompassing science of Total Natural Law.

#### Goddard, Phil H. — Psychology

Transcendental Meditation as an intervention in the aging of neurocognitive function: reduced age-related declines of P300 latencies in elderly practitioners.

Order No.9228949

Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that long-term practice of Transcendental Meditationå (TM) would preserve the speed of neurocognitive processes in elderly practitioners, as measured by latency of the P300 component of event-related brain potential and choice reaction time (RT). In Experiment 1, 13 TM subjects, group matched with 13 non-TM subjects on age (mean 65.7 yrs.) and gender (9 females in each group) participated in two oddball tasks (visual and auditory). Group t-tests indicated the TM group had faster P300 latencies than the non-TM group in the visual task, while no differences were found in the auditory task for P300 latency or RT.

In Experiment 2, TM and non-TM subjects from young (6 in each group, mean 20 yrs.) and older (10 in each group, mean 69 yrs.) age ranges, matched on age, gender, IQ, exercise level, and self-health ratings, were compared on a task intended to manipulate stimulus discriminability and stimulus-response compatibility; variables demonstrated to affect stimulus evaluation and response-related stages of processing, respectively.

ANOVAs indicated, (1) P300 latency and RT increased with difficulty in discriminability and stimulus-response compatibility, though RT was substantially more prolonged than P300 latency when an incompatible response was required, (2) P300 latencies were longer in older subjects in all conditions, while RT differences between young and older subjects became significant when task difficulty increased, indicating a centrally mediated age effect with complexity effects confined to response-related stages of processing and, (3) P300 latencies were faster for older TM than non-TM subjects across conditions, while RT was faster in older non-TM than TM subjects. Evidence suggests faster RT in older non-TM compared with TM subjects may have been partially due to motivational/strategy differences.

Overall, the results suggest neurocognitive processing speed may be preserved with age as a result of long-term practice of TM and potential mechanisms are discussed in terms of models of adult cognition, including models from Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology. Source: DAI, 53, no. 06B, (1992): 3189

#### Goldstein, Leslee — Maharishi Vedic Science

The Effect of the Transcendental Meditation® Technique on Self-Efficacy, Perceived Stress, and Quality of Life in Mothers in Uganda: A Model of Empowerment From Within

Order No. 3629592

Women in Uganda are among the most impoverished and least empowered in the world, living with a high degree of psychological distress and low quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM®) program on self-efficacy (one’s perceived ability to deal with challenges in life, and a critical component of empowerment), perceived stress, and mental and physical quality of life in women in Uganda.

A controlled study was conducted with 81 women who were served by a women’s empowerment organization in Kampala, Uganda. The participants were primarily single, illiterate mothers, average age 28 years. Subjects were assigned to either practice of the Transcendental Meditation program (n=42) or wait-list (delayed start) control group (n=39). The Transcendental Meditation technique is an effortless, systematic mental procedure practiced twice daily for 20 minutes.

Participants were measured using three questionnaires: the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Medical Outcomes Survey-HIV (MOS-HIV) with mental and physical health subscales. The primary outcome was self-efficacy, which affects overall mental and physical quality of life and is impacted by stress. Participants were administered all measures at baseline and three-month posttest.

Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) with baseline dependent scores as covariates was used. Results found an increase in self-efficacy ( p < .001), a decrease in perceived stress (p < .010), and improvement in mental and physical quality of life (p < .007).

Findings suggest that the Transcendental Meditation technique can by considered a practical method for developing empowerment in the lives of mothers in Uganda, by developing one’s sense of personal competence, or self-efficacy, by reducing perceived stress, and enhancing mental and physical quality of life, and thereby improving one’s ability to cope with, take initiative, and persevere in effectively handling life’s challenges. The TM technique ® is presented here as a new model for developing empowerment from within.

#### Goode, Patrick E. — Psychology

Cognitive style differences in temporal organization: event-related potentials and the study of serial order.

Order No.9534650

Field dependent-independent (FDI) cognitive style differences along a dimension of cognitive restructuring ability have been attributed to differential engagement of central executive processes of the prefrontal cortex. It was hypothesized that prospective temporal organization (the ability to temporally integrate plan with goal) was a psychological process essential to cognitive restructuring which would index cognitive style differences.

Thirty subjects were grouped into high restructuring ability (15 field independent) and low restructuring ability (15 field dependent) on the basis of rod-and-frame test scores, a traditional measure of FDI. A serial order recall task was then administered requiring subjects to encode and elaborate features from two successive complex geometric shapes presented over a computer screen in response to a feature probe requesting a temporal (serial order) judgment. The task manipulated a retrospective temporal organization function (the ability to link past events in service of a goal) and a prospective temporal organization function by independently varying elaboration demand as well as feature recall demand.

Reaction time and performance accuracy verified the manipulation of experimental variables and confirmed that subjects complied with elaboration and feature recall requirements. A repeated measures MANOVA indicated the cognitive style groups did not differ on retrospective temporal organization indexed by a positive slow wave which was significantly enhanced at frontal, central and parietal sites in the high elaboration relative to the low elaboration condition. A repeated measures MANOVA revealed the groups did significantly differ in amplitude of a primarily frontal and central negative slow wave (CNV) prior to the feature probe in the high demand prospective temporal organization condition.

The results from this study provide psychophysiological evidence in support of theories of FDI which suggest central executive processes may play an important role in explaining differences in the FDI cognitive style. It is suggested the theoretical model associating the frontal lobes with a temporal organization function and the use of ERP methodology may serve as a valuable framework to further explore the psychological construct of FDI. Source: DAI, 56, no. 06B, (1995): 3494

#### Goodman, David Harvey — Management

Construction and validation of an instrument designed to assess flow and job satisfaction in occupational settings: exploratory research

Order No. 9633807

The purposes of this dissertation were to explore the flow experience at work and to construct and validate a questionnaire. Flow is characterized by highly positive states and total involvement in activity. Two versions of the Work Experience Questionnaire (WEQ) were constructed and validated in corporate settings indicating that the WEQ is a promising instrument.

Study 1. The first version of the questionnaire was administered to 44 subjects along with Csikszentmihalyi/Heckman’s questionnaire, The Study of Flow in the Workplace. Items were positively and negatively anchored (flow/anti-flow) according to Csikszentmihalyi’s six flow characteristics. The two factor principle components solution clearly separated positive and negative characteristics (Cronbach alpha of 0.8082 and 0.8156). The screen test specified 7 factors, which were: (1) frustration in turbulence, (2) psychological traits of unhappiness, (3) confidence to deal with the demands at work, (4) joyous creativity, (5) teamwork and goal attainment, (6) contentment, (7) distraction. Anti-flow items more closely approximated the proposed classification than the flow items. Concurrent validity on Csikszentmihalyi/Heckman’s three questions showed that one, skills that seemed second-nature, correlated with WEQ Total Flow (p=0.037).

Study 2. A 72-item version of the WEQ was administered to 94 subjects in three sessions. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short-Form, (MSQ), Social Desirability and a two question test on Personal Efficacy were administered concurrently with a subset of these subjects. The correlation between Social Desirability and Total Flow, (r =-0.327) indicated that high flow was not likely to be fabricated. Personal efficacy was correlated with average satisfaction from the MSQ (r = -0.560) and negatively correlated with Total Anti- flow (r = -0.513), and Social Desirability (r = -0.485). The relation with previously specified characteristics was strengthened when positive and negative items were separately factor analyzed.

The experience of flow which is often an ephemeral condition of waking consciousness was compared and contrasted with the experience of pure consciousness and higher states of consciousness, as defined by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. The establishment of self-referral awareness as an all-time reality characterizes higher states of consciousness. Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B, (1996): 4068

#### Goodman, Rachel Spigel — Psychology

The Maharishi Effect and government: effects of a national demonstration project and a permanent group of Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program practitioners on success, public approval, and coherence in the Clinton, Reagan and Bush presidencies

Order No. 9735103

The purpose of the dissertation was to examine the effect of large groups of individuals practicing the Transcendental MeditationÎ (TMÎ) and Transcendental Meditation- SidhiÎ programs together (known as the “Extended Maharishi Effect”) on success and support for government. Studies assessed the impact of these large groups on both short and long term trends.

The first study assessed the impact of the National Demonstration Project (NDP) in Washington whose purpose was the creation of a coherent environment for government. Predictions of the NDP were lodged with an independent review board comprised of criminologists and sociologists from six universities, civic leaders and the police department. Predictions included increased success and support for President Clinton and improved quality of life in Washington.

Nine variables investigated these predictions. All nine variables showed a significant increase in positivity after the start of the NDP which reversed the negativity prior to the NDP. Measures included Clinton’s approval ratings, media positivity toward the President, variables indicative of social stress: emergency psychiatric calls, hospital trauma, police complaints, and accidental deaths and a social stress index. Bipartisanship in Senate and House utilizing ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD on roll call votes exhibited a significant increase between the pre and post measures.

The results were replicated with three Presidential administrations (Clinton, Reagan, and Bush) showing a significant impact of TM and TM-Sidhi program groups at Maharishi International University, the NDP, and numbers at similar large assemblies held in the 1980’s. Variables analyzed with time series transfer-function analysis were presidential approval ratings, media positivity, and U.S. interactions with other countries.

Both short term results of the NDP on approval ratings and other variables and the longer term studies support the hypotheses of the NDP on government variables lending support to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s original predictions that coherence in a social system can be enhanced through large groups generating the Extended Maharishi Effect. Source: DAI, 58, no. 06A, (1997): 2385

#### Guttmann, Julia Kim — Psychology

The search for bliss: A model of emotional development based on Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology

Order No.9633806

Virtually all paradigms of modern psychology acknowledge a human tendency toward positive affective states. Addressing the significance of this natural tendency from the perspective of Maharishi’s Vedic PsychologySM, a model of emotional development is constructed. The preference for happiness is identified as expressing a primary, evolutionary drive that originates in a universal field of absolute bliss consciousness and leads human development to attain an enduring state of bliss, which then provides a backdrop for experiencing the temporal emotions. This model was explored through the subjective methodologies of qualitative research. Twenty participants of the Transcendental MeditationŒ and TM-SidhiŒ program were interviewed about experiences of bliss and emotions. Content analysis produced a portrait of emotional functioning that appears to be a distinct, higher stage of development than is described in contemporary models. Whereas momentary “peak” experiences are recorded in every culture participants reported stabilizing such experiences. This stabilization led to a shift in identity from external factors to inner bliss. Changes in emotional experience accompanied this shift: enhanced richness of experience; increased positive affect; decreased negativity; freedom from attachments and the overpowering influence of emotions; greater differentiation; more positive outlook. Participants also completed the Loevinger Sentence Completion test for ego- development and, as a group, scored significantly higher than normative data, p < .05. The study provides experiential elaboration to the theoretical model and uncoversn ew dimensions for research in emotional development. It also demonstrates that regular practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs develops and stabilizes a profound state of bliss which, in addition to providing inner fulfillment, results in greater happiness and success in daily life. Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B, (1996): 4055

#### Gyawali, Dinesh — Physiology

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses on Effects of Ayurvedic Interventions for Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension, and Coronary Heart Disease

Order No. 10617601

Heart disease is the number one cause of death globally. Because of numerous side effects and increasing cost of conventional treatments, there is a growing interest in complementary healing approaches like Ayurveda. However, in lack of sufficient scientific evidence, safety and efficacy profile of these interventions has not yet been established. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are the gold standard of evidence upon which clinicians, consumers, policymakers rely. Until this time, there are no Cochrane or other systematic reviews and meta-analysis on Ayurvedic interventions for cardiovascular disorders. This study was conducted with an aim to explore the efficacy of Ayurvedic interventions in hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and coronary heart disease, strength of the evidence and their possible side effects.

Cochrane guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analysis were followed to design, formulate and implement search strategies, select studies, collect, abstract and analyze data, assess risk of bias, and report and interpret results.

Evidence from results were classified as per guidelines from American Academy of Neurology. Three meta-analyses of 64 studies on 2629 people studying effects of 10 different Ayurvedic interventions for hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure and coronary heart disease, concluded that there is moderate to high strength evidence that several Ayurvedic herbal preparations are safe and effective. They pose no known side effects and thus can be used as dietary supplements or as an adjuvant to conventional therapy for better results. It was observed that Commiphora mukul (guggulu) reduced total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels by approximately 16 mg/dL and 18 mg/dL respectively with high certainty evidence. Similarly, garlic and Terminalia arjuna (arjuna) based formulas also had high to moderate strength evidence of their efficacy to reduce cholesterol levels. On the other hand, Arjun Vachyadi compound and Rauwolfia serpentina based formulas were found to have moderate certainty evidence to reduce high blood pressure. It was also observed that Ayurvedic formulas with arjuna as a chief ingredient are capable of improving left ventricular ejection fraction by 12 % with a moderate strength of evidence. Findings of these systematic reviews and meta-analysis encourage future researchers to conduct methodologically rigorous randomized clinical trials studies with a larger sample size.

#### Hankey, Deborah Ann — Maharishi Vedic Science

The awakening of full human potential through Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Vedic Science research on the experience of reading the Vedic literature

Order No. 9948662

This paper is part of a global research program on the development of human consciousness through the technologies of Maharishi’s Vedic Science. Maharishi’s Vedic Science is a complete science of consciousness derived from the literature of the ancient Vedic tradition. The author explores the outcomes of the technology of reading the Vedic Literature in the original Sanskrit language.

The author hypothesized that reading the Vedic Literature would enhance the evolutionary influence of Maharishi’s technologies for the development of consciousness, the Maharishi Transcendental MeditationÎ and TM-SidhiÎ programs, by structuring orderliness in brain physiology and promoting powerful, productive thinking and successful, fulfilling action. The hypothesis is based on the knowledge that the Vedic Literature is significant for its sound value. The syllables, words, and verses of Vedic texts unfold in the perfect sequence of Nature’s own frequencies. Maharishi’s Vedic Science explains that the sounds comprising the Vedic Literature are fundamental frequencies at the basis of physical creation and of human physiology.

The author investigated physiological and other effects of adding the pronunciation of Vedic texts to the regular practice of Maharishi’s technologies of consciousness. Subjective experiences, both during and outside the reading period, were recorded and evaluated in light of the principles and predictions of Maharishi’s Vedic Science regarding the systematic growth of consciousness produced by reading the Vedic Literature. The author considered the extent to which the reading program enlivened qualities of consciousness expressed in the Vedic texts themselves and observed new patterns of thought, perception, and behavior arising from this enlivenment.

Research findings indicated that reading the Vedic Literature strengthened various fundamental qualities of consciousness, as predicted by Maharishi, and consolidated the growth of experience in the direction of higher states of consciousness. As a result, the author recommends adding the reading exercise to the regular practice of Maharishi Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs to accelerate the development of full human potential. The author suggests further avenues of research in education where increased orderliness of brain functioning may enhance cognitive functioning and facilitate the learning experience. Source: DAI, 60, no. 10A (2000): p. 3641

#### Hatchard, G. D. — Maharishi Vedic Science

Maharishi Vedic Economy: wholeness on the move: an analysis of improved quality of life and enhanced economic performance through the application of the Maharishi Effect in New Zealand, Norway, USA, Mozambique, and metropolitan Merseyside, UK.

Order No. 9971789

This dissertation studies improvements in economy and quality of life in New Zealand, Norway, USA, Mozambique, and metropolitan Merseyside, UK through the Maharishi Effect created when 1% of a population practice the Transcendental Meditation® program or when the square root of 1% of a population practice the Maharishi TM-Sidhi® program including Yogic Flying in a group twice-daily.

Time series analysis shows that crime fell in Merseyside by 13.4% in 1988 (p <0.00006) when the size of a group of Yogic Flyers in nearby Skelmersdale exceeded the Maharishi Effect threshold.

The economies of New Zealand and Norway were examined before and after they passed the Maharishi Effect threshold in 1993 with reference to the IMD Index of National Competitive Advantage compiled from over 224 economic and social statistics. The scores of New Zealand and Norway increased significantly when they passed the predicted threshold as shown by panel regression analysis robust to serially correlated errors, heteroscedasticity, and contemporaneous correlation of residuals (p < 3 x 10-15). Subsidiary analysis and OECD data confirmed that the changes were broad-based (p < 3.5 x 10-8), sustained, and balanced in nature with five years of high growth, low unemployment, and low inflation. Economic data from Mozambique, and USA reveal a similar picture of stable economic growth along with capacity to resist economic shocks and repay government debt.

A research-based estimate of the dollar savings and revenue generation through the implementation of the Maharishi Effect in the education and health systems or in the military is calculated. For every $1 spent on creating the Maharishi Effect, government savings are estimated as up to$5,600 from the national budget through increased GDP, reduced crime and conflict, improved health, and reduced unemployment.

Maharishi Vedic EconomySM theory is explored as a prescription for balanced and sustained growth for society, and health and well being for the individual. These theoretical considerations are developed with reference to both models from physical theory and the human factors of economy including creativity, innovation, and health. A literature review of over 250 studies of the impact of the Transcendental Meditation program on health shows that all categories of quality of life measures used by health economists are improved. Source: DAI, 61, no. 04B (2000): p. 2271

#### Hawkins, Mark Aeneas — Psychology

The effects of Maharishi’s Consciousness-Based approach to rehabilitation with inmates in Curacao

Order No. 9836283

An offender rehabilitation study was conducted at Strafgevangenis Federal Prison, Cura¨ao, the Netherlands Antilles from August 1994 to June 1995. Subjects (N = 300) were male and predominately of African descent but with a mixture of Portuguese, Dutch, East Indian, Chinese, or South American as well. The purpose of this multidimensional study was to test the effects of the practice of the Maharishi Transcendental MeditationSM technique on recognized psychosocial and cognitive predictors of criminal behavior. Subjects were tested on psychosocial measures of aggression (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory), psychological distress and well-being (Mental Health Inventory), impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsivity Scale), cognitive distortion (How I Think Questionnaire), socially desirable responding (SDRS-5), self-esteem (Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale- -modified), and self-reported social behavior (created by the author). They were also tested on two cognitive performance measures which have been correlated to intelligence: field independence (Group Embedded Figures Test) and inspection time (Zhang’s Inspection Time Test). Tests were translated into Spanish and Papiamentu and showed 90% word-to-word accuracy in reverse translation. These tests, including subscales, created twenty-one dependent variables that were reduced by principal components analysis to form six factors: Cognitive Distortion, Psychological Distress, Aggression, Impulsiveness, Intelligence- related Measures, and Psychological Well-being. Univariate analysis of covariance for effect of group on factor change scores showed a significant difference between groups on two factors: Cognitive Distortion (p = 0.036) and Intelligence- related Measures (p = 0.05), and a trend toward significance on the factor Psychological Well-being (p = 0.082). Low compliance to treatment and differential sensitivity of tests to treatment effects were considered the most likely causes for lack of results. However, the results that were obtained in the present study add further support to the claim that the practice of the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation technique is a useful rehabilitation tool that positively affects psychosocial and cognitive predictors of criminal behavior. Source: DAI, 59, no. 06B, (1998): 3093

#### Hebert, John Russell — Maharishi Vedic Science

Restructuring consciousness theory from its foundation in light of Maharishi Vedic Science.

Order No. 3318942

Most contemporary neuroscience theories of consciousness are object-referral based on zero-lag phase synchrony in the gamma frequency. The alpha frequency has for the most part been left out of consciousness theory, even though it is the first frequency to appear in the EEG upon waking up and the first to disappear during sleep onset. This orientation of neuroscience to object-referral consciousness reflects a classical physics, reductionist model of consciousness. Maharishi Vedic Science presents a different theoretical perspective on consciousness, a model that includes object-referral consciousness but in addition includes what is called self-referral consciousness. Alpha was selected for study because of previous work showing enhanced alpha coherence during Transcendental Meditation. Also alpha in Transcendental Meditation may be linked to self-referral consciousness.

The study examines the EEG alpha phase synchrony in fifteen long-term practitioners of Transcendental Meditation who were investigated during eyes-closed and Transcendental Meditation practice. Twelve controls were evaluated for EEG changes during eyes-closed rest.

The study found higher alpha phase synchrony. Subsequent re-analysis of the data also found higher long-range alpha coherence during Transcendental Meditation compared to eyes closed. Significant changes were found globally and most prominently in long-range EEG connections during meditation practice as compared to eyes-closed resting. No changes were found in controls. The alpha coherence findings replicate previous findings. The alpha phase synchrony is a new finding.

The results are used to describe stationary zero-lag alpha as the benchmark of consciousness. The beginning point or “ground state” may consist of a zero-lag whole-head alpha field associated with subjectively unified states during Transcendental Meditation. The finding of phase synchrony over the whole cortex gives evidence for stationary standing wave patterns.

The results suggest that alpha is the primary resonant frequency of the brain capable of generating standing waves. In addition, physicists have laid importance on global EEG phase patterns in the brain as a link to resonance phenomena in quantum models. Thus, the dissertation research and theoretical discussions presents a paradigm shift from gamma orientation to alpha; a turnaround in emphasis from object-referral to self-referral orientation, and a shift from classical physics to a quantum physics model.

#### Hensley, Park — Maharishi Vedic Science

Maharishi Vedic Science and the Upānga as a Framework for Scientific Methodology

Order No. 3629748

Maharishi Vedic Science and the Upānga provide criteria to validate complete knowledge. This dissertation investigates how well modern science satisfies these criteria. The goals are to place modern science into a completely unified framework, locate the unmanifest source of any object of knowledge in the unified field, and apply this knowledge for a completely unified experience of nature. Maharishi Vedic Science is a revival of the holistic nature of Vedic Science by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. It accomplishes this through analysis of the properties of the object and by subjective technologies to directly experience the ultimate source of the object. Modern science is an objective approach through repeated experimentation of model-derived hypotheses. Even in this objective approach, physics has developed much more refined understanding of matter than Newton’s historical view of matter as separate, hard, and impenetrable. With discovery of the unified field, a standard much closer to the Upānga has been achieved in physics. But the question remains whether a strictly objective approach accounts for both objectivity and subjectivity, as in the Upānga. The most successful physical theory is “The Standard Model”, but it does not completely unify fundamental forces. Advanced string and loop quantum gravity theories are progressing toward a mathematically elegant unified field theory. This progress is inexorably from concrete physical to abstract non-physical levels. But because of its objective third-person approach, physics views the unified field as extending the physical. On the other hand, the Upānga incorporate the first-person approach, and identify the unified field as also the most fundamental level of subjectivity, pure consciousness. Recent progress connects quantum field theory to information field theory, which implicitly acknowledges intelligence, meaning, and subjectivity. This field underlies matter and energy, and is underlain itself by the unified field. Because subjectivity is understood as too variable, modern science has relied solely on the objective approach to eliminate this variability. It does not provide complete knowledge of the knower. Maharishi Vedic Science restores the field of knowledge to completeness by identifying the unified field as the single source of objectivity and subjectivity, the unified field of consciousness itself.

#### Hernandez, Rene Suzan —Neuroscience

Effects of task condition on the relationship of EEG coherence and full scale IQ in children.

Order No. 8820228

EEG coherence (COH) is a quantitative comparison of the waveshape between spatially distinct EEG signals, and is thought to indicate the number and strength of cortical connections. Thatcher et al. (1983) found a robust negative correlation between COH during eyes-closed (EC) rest and full scale IQ in 191 children. In contrast, Orme-Johnson et al. (1982) reported a positive correlation in frontal leads between COH during practice of the Transcendental MeditationÂ (TM) technique and verbal IQ in 47 adults. This study attempted to reconcile these findings and to further clarify the functional significance of COH by testing COH-IQ correlations across a dynamic range of brain states.

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and a test for handedness were administered to 24 female and 24 male right- handed normal children. Seventy-two seconds of EEG data were recorded from 16 monopolar leads in four frequency bands during three task conditions, EC rest, a mental arithmetic task, and TM practice. COH was computed for 10 intrahemispheric and 7 interhemispheric lead combinations. Polynomial regression analyses (BMDP 5R) of full scale IQ regressed on each of the COH variables demonstrated significant negative COH-IQ correlations in posterior scalp locations in all frequency bands in EC, and the negative correlatons held up across the three task conditions. However, a consistent trend toward positive COH-IQ correlations was found in anterior leads. Multiple analyses of covariance (BMDP 4V) found significant differences between anterior and posterior COH-IQ correlations for interhemispheric lead pairs in delta and theta frequencies in all task conditions.

The negative COH-IQ correlations in posterior leads replicated previous findings in children, and was consistent across a range of mental activation. In contrast, the significant positive frontal COH-IQ correlation suggests that the functional significance of COH may depend upon scalp location, with frontal COH being distinct from posterior regions. These findings also suggest that TM practice produces measurable changes in the functional activity of frontal areas of the brain, which was consistent with reports of greater emotional stability in TM practitioners. Source: DAI, 49, no. 08B, (1988): 3032

#### Herriott, Eva M. — Psychology

Elements of entrepreneurial success: the links among inner competencies, inner development and success

Order No. 995611

This exploratory study inquired into the link between changes associated with personal development and competencies relevant to business success in a group of entrepreneurs in Fairfield, Iowa. The Fairfield entrepreneurs are part of an entrepreneurial community in the rural Midwest, which has enjoyed considerable success. In addition, the vast majority of the Fairfield entrepreneurs are long-term practitioners of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Transcendental MeditationÎ (TM) and TM- SidhiÎ program, two well-documented techniques for facilitating stress management, promoting health, and fostering personal growth.

The study sought to assess whether the entrepreneurs exhibited any common inner competencies, which had played a role in their success, and whether any of these competencies were linked to the inner growth the entrepreneurs had enjoyed as a result of the TM and TM-Sidhi practice. To answer the research questions, an exploratory qualitative study was conducted using the techniques of grounded theory.

The results of the study suggested that a number of the competencies widely thought to be linked to success might be developed and/or augmented through the practice of the TM and the TM-Sidhi program. This suggests that many, if not all, of these competencies are not fixed, in-born personality features, but might instead be part of an inherent developmental potential.

The results further indicated that the TM technique develops a number of qualities not commonly observed in the literature. These included superior stress management skills, which seemed to derive from an expansion of the internal resources that the person had to draw on. Many interviewees also exhibited a type of functioning, which appeared to go beyond the ‘normal’ range of human experience. All study participants reported frequent use of intuition; a sense of being in tune with a cosmic stream of evolution; and awareness of a more holistic, all-encompassing level of truth and reality. This in turn was expressed in more universal values, which embraced the wider interests of employees, community, or environment as a whole.

Based on the findings of the study, a theory of the nature and origin of competencies was presented. Source: DAI, 60, no. 12B (2000): p. 6398

#### Herron, Robert Emmanuel — Management

The impact of Transcendental Meditation practice on medical expenditures

Order No. 9310427

Despite attempts to contain health care spending, these costs have continued to grow rapidly. Consequently, new strategies are needed. In response to this need, this research evaluated the impact of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on medical expenditures. Over 500 studies conducted worldwide indicate that TM practice produces a unique state of restful alertness that improves mental and physical health. Biochemical and psychological research shows that TM practice also eliminates stress that degrades the immune system and increases disease susceptibility. Previous cross- sectional research (Orme-Johnson, 1987) found that TM practitioners have lower medical care utilization than nonmeditating control groups. This longitudinal study evaluated the possible effect of TM practice on medical expenditures as measured by payments for physicians’ services. In 1991 meditators in Quebec, Canada were mailed questionnaires that asked for their health insurance number that enabled the government to retrieve the monthly physicians’ expenses from 1981-1990 for 599 subjects. A mail survey of nonrespondents was also conducted. The data was controlled for age, sex, inflation (physicians’ fee index), year-specific variation and season, and was analyzed three years before and after subjects started TM practice. During the pretest the physicians’ expense differences were nonsignificant between TM subjects and the averages of all enrollees of the same age and sex in the Quebec health insurance plan. During the posttest TM subjects’ real (inflation adjusted) expenses declined 12.4% annually over three years (cumulative change: approximately 36%). The sample was subdivided to analyze those who incurred high costs in the pre-TM period regardless of age. During the posttest high-cost cases exhibited real expense declines that averaged 18% annually. This effect is not due to regression to the mean. Subjects over fifty years old were also analyzed, and their real expenses declined 19% annually over three years. There is no evidence of nonresponse bias. A thorough examination of threats to validity did not support an alternative hypothesis. These results support the hypothesis that TM practice reduces medical expenditures. When compared with the cost effectiveness of other health promotion and disease prevention interventions, the TM technique showed superior medical expense reduction capability. Consequently, the Transcendental Meditation program is recommended as a strategy for reducing health care expenditures in high-cost groups that incur the majority of expenses in most populations. ftn Orme- Johnson, D. W. Reference. (1987). Medical Care Utilization and the Transcendental Meditation Program. Psychosomatic Medicine. 49:493-507. Source: DAI, 53, no. 12A, (1993): 4219

#### Herzberger, Henry Gideon — Psychology

Voice quality and Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM- Sidhi program: vocal acoustics in health and higher states of awareness

Order No. 9228950

Two experiments investigated the effect of improved physiological health and decreased psychological stress and anxiety on voice quality, reflected in changes of five acoustic perturbation measures: (a) short-term frequency and amplitude perturbation (jitter and shimmer), (b) the coefficient of variation for longer-term amplitude (CVA) and frequency perturbation (CVF), and (c) the harmonics-to-noise ratio (H/N). The first experiment, a four-month longitudinal, random assignment study, analyzed voice data on 16 college-age male subjects before and after four months of either Transcendental Meditation (TM) or a stress management (SM) course. After four months, the TM group showed a significant reduction in CVF (p =.055) compared to the SM group, together with large to medium effect sizes (ES $>$.40) for changes in jitter, H/N, and CVA, suggesting with larger sample sizes most of the acoustic measures would reach significance. These perturbation values were in the healthy range, and were similar those of the long- time TM subjects in Experiment 2. The second experiment, a cross-sectional study compared six long-time TM and TM-Sidhi subjects reporting experiences of “higher states of consciousness” to six non-meditating comparison subjects. The only significant group differences were in CVA (p =.020). Initial changes seen in the first experiment did not seem to continue with additional TM practice.

These data suggest initial short-term reductions in acoustic perturbation with TM practice reach a stable normal, perhaps optimal, level, which is then maintained. The change is in the direction of improved voice clarity and freedom from roughness or hoarseness. Further research could investigate suprasegmental speech to better discriminate deeper changes in speech and communication which may develop with long-term practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi program. Thus, prosodic features of multi-syllabic speech–variations in loudness, pitch, and speaking rate–together with formant and harmonic band analysis, may reveal subtler aspects of communication such as changes in affect which could develop with the TM and TM- Sidhi program. Source: DAI, 53, no. 06B, (1992): 3190

#### Hill, David A. — Neuroscience

Beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, autonomic balance and serotonergic activity in practitioners of Transcendental Meditation.

Order No. 9000435

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the acute autonomic effects of the Transcendental Meditationå Program (TM) and resolve the conflict arising from discrepant neurochemical and psychophysiological data. Three experimental investigations were performed.

The first examined beta sub 2-adrenergic receptors (AR’s) on peripheral blood lymphocytes, via [I super {125}] iodocyanopindolol binding, in 10 male mediating and 10 age matched non-meditating control subjects, to test the hypothesis that the long-term practice of TM and the TM Sidhiå Program (TMSP) reduces end organ sensitivity to adrenergic agonists. Independent two-tailed t tests revealed no significant differences in either B sub {max} (t(9) = 0.073), or K sub {D} (t(9) = 0.319). However, the TM group had a reduced percentage of high affinity receptors (t(9) = -3.375, p <.01).

The second investigated respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indirect measure of cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous System tone), and skin resistance (a measure of Sympathetic Nervous System tone) during periods of spontaneous respiratory apneusis, a phenomenon occurring during TM that is known to mark the subjective experience of “transcending”. No detectable changes in heart rate or phasic skin resistance were seen at these times.

The third was a within subject investigation of the acute effects of the TMSP on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity. Platelet 5-HT was assayed by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detection, plasma prolactin (PL) and lutenizing hormone (LH) by radioimmunoassay, tryptophan by spectrofluorimetry, and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, a modulator of 5-HT uptake) by radial immunodiffusion assay. Two- tailed dependent t tests revealed significant reductions in platelet 5-HT (t(22) = 4.37, p < 0.001) and PL (t(24) = 4.47, p < 0.001), with no changes in tryptophan or AGP. Years practicing TM was negatively correlated (r = -0.5, p < 0.01) with post TM PL levels and positively correlated (r = 0.51, p < 0.02) with the 5-HT change score.

These results support the conclusions that the long-term practice of the TM and TMSP is associated with a down regulation of the Beta sub 2 AR on peripheral blood lymphocytes, and that during the acute experience of transcending both divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System are attenuated. The results also provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that TM is associated with acutely reduced hypothalamic and peripheral serotonergic activity. Source: DAI, 50, no. 08B, (1989): 3330

#### Huang, Ayako (Hsin-Ling) — Management

Contractual Relationship and Evolving Licensing Deals: A Paradigm for the Application of the Theory of the Norm

Order No. 3523279

The licensing deal is an organizational phenomenon to the extent that it exhibits relational features. These deals are governed by both contractual behaviors that are regulated through the “black letter” of the deal and non-contractual behaviors that are guided by social norms. Understanding more about norms, implicit obligations, and other relational features, and the nature of social relationships that structure behavior in licensing would allow us to motivate the behaviors in supporting partnership and reduce opportunism.

This dissertation focuses on the interrelations between economic activities (especially technology transfer), individual status in various domains (political, economic, social), and inter-firm relationships. Results indicate that standard views of negotiating the licensing contract are inadequate. That is, economists have no language with which to explain “appropriate” behavior. This is strictly a sociological concept. March (1999) distinguished the economic and sociological perspectives by saying that economists explain behavior using a “logic of consequence,” referring to the effects of an action in relation to one’s preferences, whereas sociologists explain behavior in terms of a “logic of appropriateness,” in which action can be justified on the grounds that it is expected in the context of a person’s role, social position, or background. It is this expectation, or more precisely a common expectation, that defines a norm.

Evidence from this research demonstrates that social norms provide the solution to technology transfer problems, especially in cases where standard models of rational choice or contractual adaptation cannot provide explanations for any contractual commitment that is beyond the contract itself. Behaviors under licensing contracts rely more on social norms than on legal rights and duties. In particular, social norms are most relevant and effective when the deals involve amendment.

#### Huang, Shih-Ming (Brandon) — Management

Perceived health and indoor environmental quality in green-certified and non-green buildings in a public organization in Taiwan.

Order No. 3374435

The current study is the first to empirically investigate the effects of green-certified buildings on human resource outcomes. This observational study uses survey data to compare self-reported health symptoms (HS) and satisfaction with indoor environmental quality (IEQS) for two intact groups of male employees working for the same public sector employer in Taiwan: one group works in certified green building (n=211), and the other works in two non-green buildings (n=161).

Using multiple regression analysis, this study found strong empirical support for 3 of 4 research hypotheses. First, study participants in the green building had IEQS scores 32.3% higher on average (p < 0.001) than those in the non-green buildings, controlling for general building satisfaction (GBS) and average weekly hours worked in the building (HRs). The observed effect size for the difference in the adjusted mean IEQS scores is 4.62, a very large effect as defined by Cohen. Thus this effect of the green building on IEQS is both statistically significant and substantively important.

Second, employees in the green building had HS scores 7.50 points (or 15.9%) higher, on average, than those in the non-green buildings controlling for GBS, HRs, job satisfaction (JS), age (AGE), and psychological demands of work (PSD) (p < 0.001). The effect size for the estimated difference in adjusted HS means is 2.26, a large effect.

Strong empirical support was also found for the third research hypothesis using an alternative specification of the model for HS in which IEQS is added as a control variable. On average, a one point increase in IEQS is associated with a 0.19 point increase in HS, controlling for GB, JS, AGE, PSD, GBS, and HRs (p < 0.001). The effect size for IEQS is 0.56, a large effect as defined by Cohen and Cohen for continuous explanatory variables in regression analysis.

The fourth research hypothesis was not empirically supported by the data. Depending on the specification of the model for HS, the effect of JS on HS is either negligible (explains less than 1% of the variance in HS) and not significant or negligible, significant, and the wrong sign (negative).

#### Kelley, Stephen — Physics

Aspects of the flipped unification of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions.

Order No.9133555

We explore phenomenological aspects of a recently- proposed Flipped SU(5) x U(1) supersymmetric GUT which incorporates an economical and natural mechanism for splitting Higgs doublets and triplets, and can be derived from string theory. Using experimental values of sin squared theta sub{W} and the strong QCD coupling, we estimate the grand unification scale M sub{G}, where the strong and weak coupling strengths are equal, and the superunification scale M sub{SU}, where all couplings are equal. We find typical values of M sub{G} [in the range] 10 superscript{15} to 10 superscript{17} GeV, with M sub{SU} somewhat higher and close to the value suggested by string models. We discuss different mechanisms for baryon decay, finding that the dominant one is gauge boson exchange giving rise to p to e sup{+} pi sup{0}, bar nu pi sup{+} and n to e sup{+} pi sup{-}, bar nu pi sup{0} with partial lifetimes ~10 sup{35 ± 2} y. We show that a large GUT symmetry-breaking scale M sub{G} is naturally generated by radiative corrections to the effective potential if a small amount ~m sub{W} of soft supersymmetry breaking is generated dynamically at a large scale. We conclude that such spontaneous symmetry breaking causes sizable D-term contributions O(m sub{W}) to all low energy scalar masses which may provide a means to discriminate among various candidate gauge groups. We analyze the low-energy effective theory obtained using the renormalization group equations, demonstrating that electroweak symmetry breaking is obtained if m sub{t} ~60 to 90 GeV. We analyze the spectrum of sparticles, with particular attention to neutralinos. Analysis of the dark matter properties of the theory shows that the LSP decays before cosmological nucleosynthesis, repopulating the fermionic “flatino” partner of the flaton, giving a viable candidate for metastable dark matter. Finally, we show that the definition of the unified field provided by Maharishi’s Vedic ScienceSM supports the identification of the unified field with pure consciousness, and we present structural parallels between the sequence of theories produced through spontaneous dynamical symmetry breaking and the sequential emergence of natural law described by the Ved. Source: DAI, 52, no. 06B, (1991): 3119

This dissertation tested the hypothesis that enlivening the holistic source of pure intelligence/Tao by Maharishi’s Transcendental MeditationŒ (TM) program develops holistic intelligence, optimizing all aspects of mental functioning and personality. Holistic intelligence was operationalized by six culture-fair tests: Test of Creative Thinking (TCT-DP); Contructive Thinking Inventory (CTI); Spielburger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); Inspection Time (IT); Cattell’s Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT); Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), which respectively measure creativity; practical intelligence; anxiety (experiential intelligence); neural efficiency (physiological intelligence); fluid intelligence; and field independence (contextual intelligence).

Three randomized, blind, controlled studies (6-12 months) were conducted with 363 Chinese students, mean age 14.5-17.5. The first study compared TM with Napping, and no-interest subjects. The second study compared TM with Contemplation technique, and control. The third study compared TM with control.

The emergence of 5 to 6 distinct components from factor analyses supported that multiple intelligences exist. MANCOVA showed that the TM groups increased multiple intelligences significantly more than controls in three studies. For the three studies combined, the TM groups improved more than controls on all tests: TCT-DP (p < .000000008); CTI (p < .00009); STAI (p <.00001); IT (p < .0003); CFIT (p <.001); GEFT (p <.00000004). The effect sizes were largest on measures associated with deeper levels of mind, creativity (.77), anxiety (.63), field independence (.58), practical intelligence (.5), inspection time (.46), fluid intelligence (.4); MANCOVA showed that TM increased holistic intelligence more than Contemplation (p <.000001) or Napping (p <.000045).

These findings confirmed that intelligence is holistic and can be developed through regular experience of pure intelligence/Tao through Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation program. They confirm that TM has the ability to simultaneously improve a broad range of mental abilities which has a far-reaching impact on the field of intelligence and education. Source: DAI, 56, no. 06A, (1995): 2178

#### Kendz, Stanley — Management

An Investigation of Consciousness-based Management and the Support of Nature Phenomenon Experienced by Long-Term Practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® Programs, Including Yogic Flying®

Order No. 3704920

Maharishi Vedic ScienceSM extols the Support of Nature, often referred to as luck and good fortune, as a consciousness-based management tool to do less and accomplish more in fulfilling personal desires and professional goals. The Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi ® Programs, including Yogic Flying, are said to cultivate the development of consciousness, resulting spontaneously in increased Support of Nature. Subjects who were long-term, twice-daily practitioners of these techniques who were residing in Fairfield, Iowa were selected to partake in qualitative, semi-structured interviews about personal experiences of more effortless fulfillment of desires. Six of the 18 subjects were senior executive officers (SEO) of the international Transcendental Meditation program. The remaining 12 were active participants of the Invincible America Assembly SM, an organization founded by Maharishi to establish world peace.

All subjects reported experiences of Support of Nature. All subjects also reported that with continued practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs, the frequency, timeliness, and meaningfulness of their Support of Nature experiences increased over time. When describing their inner experiences associated with the Support of Nature, subjects reported being in a quiet and relaxed state of mind.

When findings were analyzed with reference to a model of levels of the mind, it was noted that in describing the fulfillment of desires through Support of Nature, subjects primarily talked about the higher Self – Pure Consciousness; while the ego, intellect, and thinking mind were not much mentioned. This suggests the possibility of a new approach to management in which cultivating higher states of consciousness is the primary tool of management, while intellectual analysis of how goals will be achieved takes a lesser role as the achievement of desired goals is entrusted to the Support of Nature.

#### Kesterson, John B — Neuroscience

Changes in respiratory patterns and control during the practice of the Transcendental MeditationŒ technique.

Order No. 8703159

Studies show a drop in metabolic rate (MR) possibly causing a decrease in frequency of breathing (f) and respiratory suspensions (RS) with Transcendental Meditation (TM). Some argue these changes are no greater than those in controls while relaxing. Eighty-four meditators and ten non-meditating controls were tested, some repeatedly, for a number of respiratory variables in a four stage experiment. The first stage examined the meditators for f, end-tidal CO(sub 2) concentrations, and time to onset of breathing changes during TM. Three respiratory patterns appeared: no change in f (Group 1), a large decrease in f (Group 2), and subjects with frequent RS (Group 3). Patterns of respiration were consistent over as many as 7 trials. Group 3 subjects demonstrated a 4 mmHg increase in end-tidal CO(sub 2). Patterns occurred within 3 seconds of cue to begin TM.

In Stage 2 there were no differences in MR between the three groups or between the controls while relaxing and the meditators. MR decreased for all groups even further upon lying down. The respiratory quotient dropped for meditators but not for controls.

In Stage 3 spirometry experiments showed there was a decrease in alveolor ventilation over oxygen consumption for the meditators, producing hypoventilation. Apneusis occurred during suspensions for Group 3 subjects.

In Stage 4 a Group 3 subject showed decreased sensitivity to arterial CO(sub 2) concentrations and increased sensitivity to arterial O(sub 2) concentrations. Arterial O(sub 2) values, measured with an ear oximeter, decreased equally during RS and voluntary breath holds. The subjects with the greatest change in breathing pattern were most alert during meditation, had meditated the greatest number of years, and had the best self- reported experiences during and outside of meditation.

The conclusion was that the drop in MR during TM is probably a consequence of muscular relaxation. Furthermore, the drop in MR does not cause the changes in breathing. Instead, TM invokes a neural mechanism, associated with a change in state of consciousness producing changes in f, RS, hypoventilation, a decrease in RQ and changes in sensitivity to blood gasses. Findings are consistent with a state of restful alertness. Source: DAI, 47, no. 10B, (1986): 4337

#### King, Jeams Lynwood — Maharishi Vedic Science

Fundamentals of Maharishi Vedic Science

Order No. 3269319

Developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi to accelerate human evolution, Maharishi Vedic ScienceSM is consciousness-based: its theories and programs promote connection with the field of consciousness deep within individual and cosmic life. Fundamentals of Maharishi Vedic Science examines the insights and principles which define and support these theories and programs. Understanding its fundamental ideas reveals how Maharishi Vedic Science systematically enlivens the field of consciousness, improving every aspect of life.

Part I. Consciousness and Veda highlights fundamentals concerning the nature of consciousness and its infinite creativity. It views consciousness as the source and essential constituent of all subjective and objective aspects of the universe. The dynamics of creation within consciousness are outlined: how, in a self-referral manner, this unmanifest field generates all manifest forms and phenomena. Included is an explanation of how infinite creativity within consciousness is harnessed by developing higher states of consciousness, which result from direct experience of pure consciousness, the simplest form of human awareness.

The structure of consciousness is described as Veda, the total potential of Natural Law and blueprint of creation. Forty Aspects of Veda and Vedic Literature represent 40 qualities of consciousness ultimately expressed as speech, matter, the human physiology and the entire cosmos.

Part II. Foundations of Enlightenment examines technologies which enliven pure consciousness. Maharishi YogaSM , including Transcendental Meditation®; Maharishi JyotishSM , the Vedic science of prediction; Maharishi Sthapatya VedaSM , Vedic architecture; and Maharishi Gandharva VedaSM music all establish nourishing integration between inner consciousness and outer activity.

Part III. Restructuring Society: New Principles of Healthcare, Education, Management, Government, Defense and Creative Expression examines theories which foster well-being in every sector of society. When social institutions become consciousness-based, good health becomes the rule, education produces graduates awake in the source of all knowledge, administration gains the efficiency of Nature’s administration, the infinite peace of pure consciousness is lived in the world family, and creative expression enlightens while entertaining. Through its fundamental insights and principles, Maharishi Vedic Science provides the missing ingredient to successful living–experience and understanding of the innermost, transcendental value of consciousness–thereby restoring the potential for life to be lived in happiness, abundance and fulfillment.

#### King, Michael Sandford — Maharishi Vedic Science

Nature’s intelligence or human reason? Natural Law in Maharishi’s Vedic Science and in legal and ethical thought.

Order No.9735104

Most Western natural law theories assert that there is an order in nature from which universal moral norms–‘natural law’–can be derived through a process of reasoning for the purpose of promoting right conduct and just law. Criticisms of these theories include: fallacious reasoning–in attempting to derive an ‘ought’ from an ‘is’–being inevitably colored by the theorist’s subjectivity, and offering no practical formula for achieving their purpose.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s new approach to natural law avoids these problems. Unlike natural law theories, his Vedic Science is not based on a process of reasoning, but on a universal, invariant field of pure consciousness, which although not commonly experienced, is the fundamental level of awareness–the Self. Within pure consciousness, Maharishi teaches, is the blueprint of nature, the universal, impersonal intelligence ordering the universe, which he calls ‘Natural Law.’ But he does not derive universal moral norms from it. Instead, his principle is that his Transcendental Meditationa® and TM-Sidhia® programs allow the awareness of anyone to effortlessly settle down from the surface levels that usually engage it to experience pure consciousness, thereby aligning individual intelligence with universal intelligence, dissolving stress in mind and body that causes errant behavior, and promoting right action and fulfillment in life.

Maharishi holds that stressed individuals create a stressed society, typified by chronic social problems and ineffective government. Such problems cannot be solved by moral codes, legislation, or law-enforcement alone, for they do not remove their underlying cause. Maharishi proposes collective practice of his Transcendental Meditation and TM Sidhi programs to dissolve stress in collective consciousness and promote positive trends in society, its government and law. Over 500 scientific studies verify Maharishi’s approach to promoting right conduct and an ideal, harmonious society.

This dissertation asserts that the practice of an inner self- development method to align individual intelligence with universal intelligence to promote wisdom, virtue, and right action was advocated by Aquinas–the classical natural law exponent–and by Plato, Stoic philosophers, and others, but that without self-development techniques the ideal of action in accord with natural law became distorted. Source: DAI, 58, no. 06A, (1997): 2243

#### Kinzel, Ria Miller — Maharishi Vedic Science

The use of an analytical model based on the sixteen elements of Nyaya in teaching English Literature with middle and high school students in consciousness-based education.

Order No. 3374436

This dissertation begins with an account of those principles and structures of consciousness presented by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi that are most pertinent to Consciousness-Based education, a system he developed with the primary goal of expanding the consciousness of students. A secondary but important goal is the achievement of excellence in the academic disciplines. Consciousness-Based education perceives pure consciousness as the ultimate reality, which may be experienced but not fully expressed in words. This renders doctrinaire definitions of ultimate truth suspect.

To integrate this perception of reality and these goals in the literature classroom, a critical-analytical approach is needed that recognizes both objective and subjective experience as essential to thought and understanding, and both heart and mind as essential elements of decision-making.

Nyaya, the Sanskrit text devoted to “distinguishing and deciding”, expresses the Vedic science of reasoning which contains sixteen points by which to test the procedure of gaining knowledge. This dissertation presents, describes and demonstrates a model of critical-analytical thinking based on these sixteen points or elements. In this model, nine of the elements are essential to decision-making, and eight of them contribute specifically to obstructing one of the essential nine. The elements have a sequential relationship, first breaking-down preconceptions and then creating new perceptions and conclusions.

This model has been systematically tested in the analysis of literature and also to a lesser degree in social studies. Because it has a firm structure and sequence the model provides teachers with a “map” by which to direct classroom discussion towards a recognizable conclusion while allowing students freedom to explore what interests them. It provides structure, sequence and great flexibility. It focuses on the process of decision-making rather than on the product. It facilitates exploration of concepts and themes in depth. Because the model students are applying is a model of their own thought process, they find applying it meaningful and significant to their own lives. Weaker students find the structure to be a helpful organizer of their own writing. Strong students use the new understanding gained to generate their own questions and to integrate it in original ways.

#### Kleinschnitz, Anne Christy Chapin — Maharishi Vedic Science

Reading the Vedic Literature: the approach in Maharishi’s Vedic Science for accelerating the development of consciousness.

Order No. 9701128

This exploratory self-study reports the effect of reading the Vedic Literature on development of consciousness, in a program formulated by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. The research consisted of two components: (1) regular daily reading in Sanskrit for its phonetic value and occasionally in English of the aspects of the traditional Vedic Literature, together with (2) twice daily practice of the Transcendental MeditationŒ and TM-SidhiŒ programs, including Yogic Flying.

The theoretical foundations of this subjective research exist in Maharishi’s Vedic Science, an integrated science of consciousness that locates the source of all manifestation in a holistic, unmanifest field of pure intelligence or consciousness, also called the Unified Field of Natural Law. Maharishi has identified thirty qualities or essential characteristics of this field that served as organizing principles for evaluating and reporting the research results.

Maharishi’s Vedic Science explains that the Veda is knowledge structured in pure consciousness, the basic foundation of life, and is a “blueprint” of the inherent structure and sequential expression of Natural Law. The Vedic texts record the cognitions of ancient seers whose awareness was fully awake to its own self-referral fluctuations. Maharishi describes Rk Veda and the Vedic Literature as the eternal reverberations or fluctuations of the Unified Field of Natural Law within itself, and explains that these fluctuations or impulses of sound sequentially manifest into form, including forms of speech, the material particles of the manifest universe, and the human physiology.

Maharishi’s Vedic Science predicts that reading each Vedic text sequentially for the inherent organizing power of its sound value regulates and balances the brain physiology, trains the mind to flow spontaneously according to Natural Law, enlivens all qualities of Natural Law in the reader, and accelerates development of higher states of consciousness. Research results were in the predicted direction, and ‘bliss’ was the quality most enlivened. The conclusion recommends that anyone wishing to enhance and accelerate development of his or her full human potential read the Vedic Literature in Sanskrit for its orderly, evolutionary phonetic value, combined with research in consciousness through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Source: DAI, 57, no. 08A, (1996): 3471

#### Kleinschnitz, Kurt Warren — Physics

An investigation into field effects of consciousness from the perspectives of Maharishi°s Vedic Science and physics.

Order No. 9713470

A long-range field effect of consciousness has been reported repeatedly in the scientific literature over the past twenty years. This phenomenon is called the Maharishi Effect, after Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the first to predict it. The Maharishi Effect is the phenomenon of improved societal trends resulting from the practice of the Transcendental MeditationŒ program or group practice of the TM-SidhiŒ program by a small fraction of a population. The Maharishi Effect is fundamentally a phenomenon of radiation of evolutionary influence arising from the enlivenment of pure consciousness, the unified field of natural law, in the perspective of Maharishi’s Vedic Science. This perspective is corroborated by forty-three published or presented papers reporting on results of Maharishi Effect interventions world-wide at city, national, international, and global scales. Present day standard-model physics and physiology do not account for the outcomes of the research on the Maharishi Effect. Because the observed societal impact of the Maharishi Effect influence must be based in an impact on the individual, and investigators report detection of the effect in individual physiological measurements, a simple robust indicator for the effect might aid physiologists and physicists in the effort to extend their sciences to include such field effects of consciousness. Thus, this dissertation reports on two experiments investigating simple, robust, objective indicators for the effect. The dissertation concludes on a practical note with a description of the promise, available through concerted utilization of the knowledge and technologies of consciousness in Maharishi’s Vedic Science, for enhanced national and global security in the face of unprecedented nuclear, biological, and genetic threats for which the modern sciences offer few sensible solutions.

footnote ŒTranscendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi are service marks registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office, licensed to Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation, and used under sublicense. Source: DAI, 57, no. 11B, (1997): 6982

#### Kondwani, Kofi Anum — Psychology

Nonpharmacologic treatment of hypertensive heart disease in African Americans: a trial of the Transcendental Meditation program and a health education program.

Order No. 9836284

Hypertensive heart disease (HHD), a major public health problem in African American communities, contributes to the disproportionally high rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this population. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction are key indicators of HHD. Lifestyle modification with diet restriction, weight reduction and exercise have been found to regress left ventricular mass and reduce elevated blood pressure (BP). The Transcendental MeditationŒ (TM) technique has been reported to reduce blood pressure, sympathetic arousal and the influence of psychosocial stressors associated with CVD. In a randomized, clinical, controlled trial with a one-year follow-up, we investigated the effect of the TM technique and a diet and exercise, health education (HE) program on left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and diastolic function (E/A ratio) determined by standard M-mode and Doppler echocardiography (echo). Within group analysis were assessed by paired t-test and between groups comparison was assessed by ANCOVA. Thirty-four (15 male and 19 female) African Americans, mean (+-SD) LVMI, 102.89 (24) and E/A ratio, 0.98 (.34) were randomized to the TM (N = 19) and the HE (N = 15) groups. There was no significant difference between groups at baseline on clinical or echo measures. Both groups showed significant within group reductions in LVMI after one year, 10.3% (p <.01) in the TM group and 14.5% (p <.01) in the HE group. Diastolic function (p =.035, one tailed) was significant in the TM group when controlling for age, pre E/A ratio and systolic BP, compared to the HE group. Furthermore, the TM group showed significant improvements in quality of life measures including energy (p =.023), positive affect (p =.01), behavioral control (p =.01) and self efficacy (p =.02) compared to the HE group. Both lifestyle modification approaches were found to be efficacious in reducing left ventricular mass in African Americans. However, the TM group showed additional improvements in quality of life, diastolic function and diastolic blood pressure. Source: DAI, 59, no. 06B, (1998): 311

#### Krieger, Donald Nathan — Neuroscience

Dependence in man of visual reaction time performance on scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) parameters (State Space Forecasting, Evoked Responses)

Order No. 8703639

Two models of the relationship between behavior and brain activity were tested. The first model was a physiological one, the mechanism which mediates odor recognition in rabbits. The question under test was whether a similar mechanism is functional in mediating visual-motor task performance in man. The signature of the mechanism in operation is a “burst” of high frequency (20 – 80 Hz) extracellular electrical activity. Therefore scalp EEG bursts were identified in the interval between stimulus and response during visual RT tasks. To facilitate burst identification, a signal enhancement technique was developed and tested. Findings indicated that the technique reduced background activity while retaining physiologically significant information, substantially promoting accurate measurement of burst parameters.

Relationships were then sought between burst parameters and task performance. Results supported the hypothesis, indicating that (1) muscle artifacts were not the primary source of the observed signals, (2) RT performance was at least partially mediated by burst-producing tissue, and (3) burst activity changed with arousal and with changes in performance indicating changes in attention and learning.

The second model was a heuristic one, a mathematical analogue of Spearman’s psychometric model of general intelligence, g. Spearman’s g is a composite metric derived from batteries of tests. It has been studied for its relationship to RT performance as well as in the more controversial assessment of over-all capabilities and prediction of long-term success. The computation of g was generalized to allow the use of complex-valued “test” scores, computed from EEG data for each RT trial. Properties of the EEG scores were subjected to tests analogous to those which have revealed the properties of g. Results only partially supported the hypothesis. One of the measures, as hypothesized, was highly stable between sessions and between frequencies. However, no significant relationship was found with task performance.

Key contributions from this work include (a) development and demonstration of a powerful general purpose signal enhancement technique and (b) demonstration of relationships between high frequency (20 – 150 Hz) EEG measures and visual-motor task performance.

#### Kwabena, Osei-Fosu Augustine — Management

Development of a Structural Model Based Upon the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess Ghanaians’ Intentions, Attitudes, and Knowledge Regarding Sustainability

Order No. 10259691

Many African countries, including Ghana, are grappling with problems associated with economic development such as deforestation, pollution, and unsustainable population growth. No previous study has systematically investigated relevant psychological factors.

The objective of this study was to understand the psychological barriers and enablers are for sustainable development in Ghana. A causal path model was developed and tested, based upon the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and relevant research on sustainability. The model included constructs that are typically included in TPB models (intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, personal norm, perceived behavioral control, and knowledge), as well as skepticism regarding sustainability, and individual financial situation. The primary dependent variable was intentions regarding sustainable behaviors. A questionnaire was developed to collect data with which to test the causal path model and 510 in Kumasi, Ghana completed the questionnaire. Data was analyzed using structural modeling to examine the goodness of fit of the causal path model and to test hypothesized relationships between model variables.

Goodness of fit of the structural model was adequate and model variables accounted for 29% of the variance in behavioral intentions, which was the primary dependent variable. With regard to intentions regarding sustainable behaviors, total effects of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and personal norms were statistically significant and in the positive direction, as hypothesized. Knowledge concerning sustainability issues in Ghana had a positive total effect on attitudes towards sustainability, which was statistically significant, as hypothesized. Knowledge also had positive and significant total effects on perceived behavioral control and on personal norms, consistent with hypotheses.

The study findings highlight the importance of education to impact attitudes and knowledge regarding sustainability issues in Ghana. A transition to a truly sustainable society would require a major transformation of attitudes and knowledge, both on the individual level and on the societal level. From this perspective, the study findings are consistent with other research showing that such profound transformations are most easily achieved by utilizing the Transcendental Meditation technique to promote development of consciousness, both on the level of the individual and on the level of society as a whole.

#### Langwell, Christina — Management

Using Human Resource Activities to Implement Sustainability In Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

Order No. 3563427

A number of recent articles argue that human resource departments can make significant positive contributions toward implementing sustainability in their organizations. However, data show that HR professionals have been minimally involved in the transformation of their organizations toward sustainability. Further empirical studies are necessary to explore the role of HR activities in making organizations sustainable. This dissertation addresses this need by looking at how small and medium-sized organizations in Iowa have implemented sustainability using communication, engagement, training, incentive plans, and recruitment efforts.

Case analyses are presented for six organizations that participated in the Petal Project; two companies from Sustainability Circles offered by True Market Solutions; and one other Iowa college to compare with the two liberal arts colleges that participated in the Petal Project. The Petal Project is a program unique to the Dubuque, Iowa area in which companies can become Petal Certified by completing criteria established by the Project. Sustainability Circles focus on training in analysis of and reduction of energy usage within their organizations. These Circles conduct a series of joint meetings of representatives from several companies.

Qualitative data were obtained from interviews and documents. Analysis of the data examined how the organizations are using communication, engagement, training, incentive plans, and recruitment efforts to help implement sustainability within their organizations. The practices of these small to medium-sized organizations were compared to similar HR activities for implementing sustainability in larger organizations, from published surveys and from case studies of several multinationals.

Guidelines are discussed in the dissertation for human resource managers or green champions to more effectively leverage these human resource activities to help implement sustainability within their own organizations. Potential advantages of combining features of the Petal Project and Sustainability Circles are also discussed. The final chapter relates human resource activities and sustainability to the teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and explains how practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique helps individuals become more aligned with the laws of nature.

#### Levitsky, Debra K. — Physiology

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on neuroendocrine indicators of chronic stress.

Order No. 9806955

Reduction of stress and its effects is an important objective because evidence suggests that stress causes or aggravates almost every human disease. The Transcendental MeditationŒ (TM) program is one of the most widely studied stress-reduction approaches. Thus, an understanding of neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating its effects would be useful. A previous cross-sectional study comparing long-term practitioners of the TM program to matched controls showed highly significant differences in urinary variables reflecting neuroendocrine function. In particular, practitioners of the TM program decreased in urinary excretion rates of cortisol, aldosterone, the norepinephrine/epinephrine metabolite vanillylmandelic acid, zinc, calcium and sodium, and increased in excretion of dehydroepiandrosterone and nighttime 5-hydroxy- indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, the major metabolite of serotonin). In addition, the TM group had reduced scores on tests of anxiety and mood disturbance. These and other results suggested that the differences were due to reversal of the long-term effects of stress by the Transcendental Meditation program. The current prospective, random-assignment study attempted to test this hypothesis. Healthy, Caucasian men (18-32 y) were randomly assigned to either the TM program or a stress education control (SEC). Before and after four months’ practice of the assigned stress management program, three consecutive 8-hour urine collections were taken, and psychological self-report tests sensitive to level of psychosocial stress were administered. Urine samples were analyzed for 5-HIAA by spectrophotometry, for adrenocortical steroids by radioimmunoassays and for ions of Na, J, Ca, Mg and Zn by atomic absorption spectrometry. Compared to controls, the TM subjects showed a significant decrease in sodium excretion during afternoon-evening hours, near- significant decreases in calcium excretion during the afternoon- evening and 24-hour periods, and statistically insignificant decreases in excretion rates for the other three ions. The high- compliance subjects combined from both groups showed a significantly lower cortisol excretion over the 24-hour period than the low-compliance subjects, suggesting that high compliance with either program leads to a reduction in cortisol. Results for sleeptime 5-HIAA also were in the predicted direction, but did not reach significance. Increased regularity of practice of the TM program was associated with a decreased POMS Tension-Anxiety score. In conclusion, the results appear overall to support previous cross-sectional studies suggesting the TM program reverses neuroendocrine effects of chronic stress. Source: DAI, 58, no. 08B, (1998): 4076

#### Loliger, Sarah-Annelies — Psychology

Relationship between subjective bliss, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid and the collective practice of Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program

Order No. 9114490

According to a large body of scientific research, collective practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi program creates a harmonizing influence on the collective consciousness of society, as seen, for example, in positive changes of social indicators. This effect, called the Maharishi Effect, is understood to operate on the most abstract, fundamental and unified level of nature’s functioning, the Unified Field of Natural Law, described by Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology as a field of “pure consciousness.” This field is subjectively experienced during the TM and TM-Sidhi program as a field of inner “bliss” and is understood to be the simplest state of one’s awareness.

The purpose of this dissertation was (a) to test the hypothesis that collective practice of Maharishi’s TM and TM-Sidhi program increases the subjective experience of bliss, a quality of awareness fundamental to moods and emotions, (b) to test the hypothesis that the collective practice of Maharishi’s TM and TM-Sidhi program increases serotonin turnover as indicated by 5-HIAA excretion rates, and (c) to provide insight into the dynamic relationship between the mental and physiological processes that appear to be affected by this program.

Over 50 consecutive days, in 10 subjects, the subjective experiences of bliss in daily activity were evaluated through an experiential sampling method (BLISS), while day and night excretion rates of the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Using Liu’s simultaneous transfer function approach, the impact of the size of the evening TM and TM-Sidhi group practice on the endogenous variables BLISS and 5-HIAA was assessed. A 9.6% increase in the reported experience of bliss and a 17.2% increase in daytime 5-HIAA excretion was found for each 100- person increase in the TM-Sidhi group. In addition, a one-way impact of the endogenous variable BLISS on the endogenous variable 5-HIAA was found, suggesting an effect of mental states on physiological functions, as posited in the framework of psychoneuro-immunological theories. Using similar methods, the quality of night sleep and the quality of experiences during the TM and TM-Sidhi program were also related to the TM- Sidhi group size, with significant total increases of 30.8% and 67.9%, respectively, for each 100-person increase in the TM- Sidhi group.

Based on Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology, a theoretical framework was proposed which could explain these results as well as other recent results on happiness, sleep quality and serotonergic function in relation to affective states. Source: DAI, 52, no. 01B, (1990): 0551

#### Luimes, Arthur — Physics

Solution propagation in stimulated Raman scattering for inhomogeneously broadened media.

Order No.9534646

This dissertation describes the propagation and generation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) at low intensities for homogeneously and inhomogeneously broadened media. It includes a theoretical and numerical analysis of the propagation of SRS solitons, and a numerical analysis of their generation. The effects of broadening and of frequency detuning of the pump and the Stokes beams off exact Raman resonance are included in the equations describing SRS. The main result is that even though SRS solitons decay in homogeneously broadened media for a non-zero value of the detuning, they are stable in inhomogeneously broadened media to lowest order in the linewidth. The analytical method that is used employs physical conservation laws for energy and the total phase shift of the soliton. In the perturbation theory, the solutions of the damped equations are assumed to be of one-soliton form as functions of time, with position dependent parameters such as width, amplitude and temporal position. Good agreement is found between the analytic results from the perturbation theory and direct numerical integration of the equations of motion describing SRS. Source: DAI, 56, no. 06B, (1995): 3263

#### Luo, Bo — Physiology

Mapping of sequence specific DNA- protein interactions: a versatile, quantitative method and its applications to transcription factor XF1.

Order No.9608533

Mapping the consensus sequence of DNA binding proteins has been greatly accelerated by methods that use in vitro selection of high affinity sequences from a library of random DNA molecules, followed by PCR-amplification and sequence analysis. However, these methods lose other valuable information because they use repetitive cycles of selection and amplification.

We have developed a method that overcomes this limitation, not only defining the consensus sequence, but also quantitating the effect on DNA-protein affinity of replacing each base in the recognition domain with every other base. The features of this method are: (1) Instead of synthesizing one oligonucleotide population containing a long randomized domain, we synthesize several oligonucleotide populations, each randomized at two positions. Because only a few species are present in each population, the concentration of each is sufficient to saturate the DNA-binding protein. Consequently, the abundance of each protein-bound oligonucleotide accurately reflects its binding affinity. (2) Because only a few species are represented in each oligonucleotide population, a single round of selection and amplification generates sufficient material for sequencing. This avoids biasing the population of protein-bound oligonucleotides toward high affinity species. Consequently, the abundances of oligonucleotides determined by sequence analysis accurately reflects their binding affinities. (3) We developed data collection and analysis procedures that eliminate artifacts, and yield accurate measures of: (a) the selectivity of the protein for each base at each position within the recognition domain (normalized relative selectivity), (b) the contributions of individual sites within the recognition domain to the binding affinity (selectivity variance), (c) the relative affinity of a particular sequence for the DNA-binding protein (global selectivity). (4) We developed a procedure for deducing aspects of the matrix of hydrogen bonds involved in DNA-protein interactions.

This method was first developed and applied to the nuclear protein XF1, which binds to xenobiotic responsive elements, that class of elements through which the liganded Ah receptor activates transcription of the CYP1A1 gene. We confirmed results by (1) cloning and sequencing individual XF1-bound oligonucleotides, and (2) competition EMSA analysis of oligonucleotides designed on the basis of in vitro selection results. Source: DAI, 56, no. 11B, (1996): 5943

#### MacLean, Christopher R. K. — Physiology

Mechanisms relating stress reduction and health: changes in neuroendocrine responses to laboratory stress after four months of Transcendental Meditation

Order No. 9534651

Pharmacological treatments have as yet failed to show clear reduction in the risk of development of coronary heart disease (CHD). As a result, behavioral treatments such as stress reduction programs continue to receive attention as alternative approaches for prevention as well as for treatment of heart disease. Research on the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi has shown it to be effective in reducing hypertension and also responsible for decreased basal cortisol levels, both acutely with the practice and longitudinally. In this study, the longitudinal effects of TM and a stress education control (SEC) on neuroendocrine responses to acute laboratory stressors were investigated.

The purpose of the present research was to examine in healthy male caucasians (18-32 yrs) the acute effects of laboratory stressors on plasma cortisol, serotonin, catecholamines, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHAS) during the stress session, and changes in their responses to stress after four months’ participation in either stress management approach.

Plasma for cortisol, serotonin and the catecholamines was sampled periodically throughout the one-hour stress session using a continuous blood withdrawal pump, whereas samples of GH, TSH, DHAS and testosterone were sampled for 4 min at the beginning and at the end of the session. The laboratory stress session consisted of mental arithmetic (6 min), a mirror star tracing task (3.5 min), and isometric hand grip (3.5 min), separated by 25 min rest periods. Samples for cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone were assayed by radioimmunoassay and statistically analyzed by t-test and one-way repeated measures ANOVA.

When compared to the SEC group by ANCOVA, basal cortisol levels and the average cortisol levels across the stress session decreased, while cortisol responsiveness increased, for the TM group after four months’ practice. For the TM group, TSH response to stress decreased while GH and testosterone responses increased over the same period. Plasma serotonin baseline, average and response to stress during the session showed a rise for the SEC group and a fall for the TM group over four months of intervention. No differences between the two groups in the changes in catecholamine responses to stress from pre- to posttest were noted, likely due to the small sample size.

These results indicate that practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique is associated with lowered plasma serotonin and cortisol as well as increased cortisol response to acute stress, in addition to changes in the responses of GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stressors. It is suggested that not only the changes in cortisol but also changes in basal level or response of other hormones reflect reduction of, or resistance to, the effects of chronic stress, i.e., changes towards more optimal adaptive mechanisms. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) Source: DAI, 56, no. 06B, (1995): 3074

#### Mason, Lynne Israelson — Psychology

Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep.

Order No.9605338

The ancient Vedic tradition (as brought to light by Maharishi, 1969) has described permanent “higher states of consciousness” (HSC) in which a distinctive state termed transcendental consciousness (i.e. silent inner-awareness without thought)–is capable of being maintained even during sleep. The Transcendental MeditationŒ (TM) program is predicted to promote transcendental consciousness and is correlated with non- descending theta/alpha (7-9 Hz). We predicted that subjects reporting HSC during deep sleep would display the typical EEG pattern of transcendental consciousness along with delta of stage 3 and 4 sleep.

Eleven (9 f, 2 m; mn age = 39.7 yrs.) healthy long-term practitioners of TM (mn = 17.8 yrs.) reporting HSC, and nine (8 f, 1 m; mn age = 27.1 yrs.) short-term meditating controls and 11 healthy non-meditating controls (11f; mn age = 29.45 yrs.) volunteered for ambulatory EEG recording. An EEG montage of C4- A1, C3-A2, EOG, and EMG was employed. Subjects with major psychiatric and physical illness were excluded. Experimentals were selected on the basis of responses to a standard scale and interviews designed to distinguish self-reports of HSC.

No significant difference was found between groups in sleep architecture or time spent in sleep stages, 2, 3, 4 and REM, for the night except experimentals had significantly greater stage 1 than controls. Spectral analysis of experimentals first three sleep cycles had significantly more theta2 (6-8 Hz) and alpha1 (8-10 Hz) relative power for sleep stages 3 and 4 as compared to meditating controls (p =.0005) and nonmeditating controls (p =.000003) with no significant differences between groups in time in delta.

Along with a pattern of theta/alpha superimposed on delta, experimentals exhibited significantly more low EMG during stage 3 and 4 sleep and significantly greater REM density during REM for the first three cycles compared to meditating controls.

These findings of simultaneous theta2-alpha1 with delta, low EMG during deep sleep, and increased REM density is a distinct electrophysiological profile that lends support to the ancient Vedic prediction of the existence of higher states of consciousness. Source: DAI, 56, no. 10B, (1995): 5797

#### Mattik, Liis — Physiology

Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program and Health Education on Allostatic Load: Promoting Normal Aging

Order No. 3475629

The “weathering” hypothesis of aging suggests that African Americans experience accelerated aging due to the cumulative effects of stress, which causes multisystem “wear and tear” or allostatic load. Previous research shows that lifestyle changes can improve individual biomarkers of allostatic load, leading toward greater health and normal aging. Specifically, practice of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program and changes in diet and physical activity reduce biological aging factors. This exploratory study examines the combined effects of the Transcendental Meditation program and conventional health education of diet and physical activity on allostatic load in 19 African American women and men with stage I hypertension over a 4-month period. This is a sub-study to a parent study on hypertension mechanisms conducted at Howard University Medical Center in Washington, DC.

The primary outcome of this study was a seven biomarker allostatic load index: body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Each of the individual biomarkers of the allostatic load index and a psychosocial stress measure, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20), were also analyzed.

Results showed a significant reduction in the allostatic load index based on composite T scores (pretest mean = 22.73 ± 2.83 and posttest mean = 20.13 ± 4.66; t (18) =3.46; p=0.003; effect size=0.92), and a marginally significant reduction in the allostatic load index threshold scores (2.63 ± 1.01 vs. 2.05 ± 1.13; t (18) =1.93; p=0.069; effect size=0.57). Results showed a significant reduction in the individual biomarkers of SBP (144.9 ± 7.29 vs. 136.72 ± 12.51; t (18)=2.94; p=0.009; effect size=1.12) and DBP (86.16 ± 5.44 vs. 81.30 ± 8.5; t (18)=2.83; p=0.012; effect size=0.89), and in the psychological distress measure: GHQ (23.54 ± 11.96 vs. 15.42 ± 10.34; t (18)=3.75; p=0.001; effect size=0.68). Other individual biomarkers also changed in the predicted direction, but the changes were not statistically significant.

Findings suggest that changing lifestyle with the Transcendental Meditation program and health education of diet and physical activity may reduce overall allostatic load in hypertensive African Americans.

#### McCollum, Bruce Chester — Management

Self development and the spontaneous expression of leadership behaviors

Order No. 9971790

Efforts to develop leadership consistently fall short of the hopes and needs of students, trainers, and society. One approach to achieving larger gains in leadership development is to develop the leader from within, to develop the leader’s consciousness, the leader’s underlying basic awareness.

Although anecdotal evidence supports the value of personal development for leadership development, little systematic research has documented its effectiveness. However, in an eight- month pretest-posttest control group study in one company, fourteen employees including both managers and subordinates, learned a standard self development program, the Maharishi Transcendental MeditationÎ program. Results indicated that the practitioners of Transcendental MeditationÎ grew significantly more than ten employee controls in their expression of leadership behaviors (all ps < .05). This growth was measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory and was expressed in individual and group interviews. The Leadership Practices Inventory measures five leadership behaviors: Challenging the Process, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Enabling Others to Act, Modeling the Way, and Encouraging the Heart.

The conclusion of this study indicates that individuals can develop leadership behaviors easily, spontaneously, and quickly through the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation program. This growth was experienced by employees at all levels of the organization indicating that this technology is a powerful means for developing leadership throughout an organization. The theoretical consequences of this study are that leadership may be easier to develop than previous experience has shown. Further research is needed to explore the practical consequences of this Consciousness-BasedSM approach to leadership development. Source: DAI, 61, no. 04A (2000): p. 1509

#### McQuiston, Tina Colleen — Maharishi Vedic Science

The Maharishi program for reading Vedic literature: Results utilizing the technology of Vedic sound in the light of Prachetana

Order No. 3130317

This dissertation documented the beneficial effects of the technology of Vedic Sound utilized in the Maharishi program for reading Vedic Literature to transform human awareness, physiology, and environment in the evolutionary direction of Natural Law.

His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi has made his Vedic Science and Technologies of Consciousness (the Transcendental Meditation® technique, the TM-Sidhi® program, etc.) available throughout the world and over 600 scientific research studies have documented their benefits. The Maharishi program for reading the Vedic Literature is a Vedic Technology of Consciousness that involves specific procedures for reading verses of the Vedic Literature, not as an intellectual exercise, but as a technology of sound. Maharishi Vedic Science® identities Vedic Sound as the expression of the infinite silence and dynamism in self-referral consciousness — the Veda — that unfolds into specific frequencies of intelligence. These frequencies, expressed in the sounds of the forty branches of the Vedic Literature, embody the structure and structuring dynamics of Natural Law in self- referral consciousness responsible for the evolution of consciousness into all forms and phenomena in the universe including the human physiology.

This study on reading Vedic Literature found three areas of results of development of consciousness similar to: (1) benefits documented in the 600 scientific research studies, (2) Maharishi’s descriptions of higher states of consciousness, and (3) the forty structures and structuring dynamics of Natural Law available in the 40 branches of the Vedic Literature.

These results were presented using the Prachetana Chart format from Maharishi Vedic Science as a method of verifying personal experiences of development of consciousness through three angles of knowledge: the Vedic Literature, scientific research on growth of consciousness, and scientific principles. The Prachetana format connects individual experience to all streams of knowledge available in modern science and Maharishi Vedic Science.

The research results of this program documented over three years indicate that reading the sounds of the Vedic literature trains the brain and whole physiology to function in that same sequential flow of intelligence as the structure of Vedic Sound in self-referral consciousness, resulting in the development of human potential and higher states of consciousness.

#### Mengistie, Asmamaw A. — Management

Analysis of the Critical Success Factors for ERP Systems Implementation in U.S. Federal Offices

Order No. 3523280

An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation is acomplex information technology project that integrates organization-wide operations. Prior surveys have reported perceptions about factors which are critical to ERP implementation success. But no prior research has empirically tested the relationship between ERP implementation factors (IFs) as independent variables and project success indicators as dependent variables. In the present study the research questions were: 1) is there a statistically significant relationship between an identified set of implementation factors for ERP projects and the empirically reported success indicators? 2) Do specific individual factors predict the level of success? Paper and online surveys were collected from 92 senior level ERP project participants—CIOs, project managers, executives and consultant/developers with experience on Federal ERP implementation projects.

The study provided descriptive survey results for ERP implementation success and perceived effectiveness of implementation factors in the environment of U.S. Federal government ERP projects. Linear and logistic regressions were calculated to evaluate the relationship of 16 IFs to three measures of the success of ERP implementation completion within scheduled time, percentage of budget exceeded and percentage of project objectives achieved. Similarly, regression analyses were performed in which the independent variables were the three composite implementation factors (strategic, tactical, and operational factors) to the same measures of the success of ERP implementation. The findings indicated that the 16 IFs as a whole can be used to predict significantly the failure of a project to complete within the initial time frame ( p=0.03). In the regression analyses on percentage of budget exceeded, the16 IFs as a whole (p=0.034) and the three composite factors as a whole were jointly significant predictors (p<0.0005). The strategic and tactical composite factors were each individually significant as predictors of percentage of budget exceeded (p<.001 and p<.0005, respectively). However, the 16 IFs as well as the three composite factors were not significant predictors of reported achievement of project objectives. The statistical results of the study support the model that the composite strategic, tactical, and operational factors are significant for ERP project implementation success.

#### Mills, Paul Joseph — Neuroscience

Cardiovascular and adrenergic reactivity and beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program and type A behavior.

Order No. 8718397

Excessive cardiovascular reactivity to stress has been identified as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. To test the hypothesis that meditation may be an effective means to reduce cardiovascular reactivity, and thus reduce risk of heart disease, this study examined the acute and chronic effects of the Transcendental MeditationŒ (TM) program on cardiovascular and adrenergic reactivity to stress, including the determination of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, while controlling for Type A behavior, a marker for cardiovascular reactivity.

Forty two males, mean age 32.5 (aged 20-48, 21 practicing the TM program and 21 non-meditating controls) were rated by the Structured Interview for Type A behavior pattern. The experiment consisted of a 30-minute baseline followed by: 5 minutes of mental arithmetic, 20 minutes of TM or relaxation, 5 minutes of a second mental arithmetic, and a 4-minute isometric hand grip at 30% maximum voluntary contraction. A 20-minute rest period separated each intervention period.

The results indicated that the TM group had both a lower resting blood pressure prior to, and a lower blood pressure level during, all three stressor periods. Following the acute TM period, the TM group had a lower diastolic blood pressure response, and a higher initial heart rate response, to the second mental stress, as well as a lower diastolic blood pressure response to the isometric hand grip task. The TM group had a higher beta-max, a lower percent of receptors in the high affinity state, and a lower mean resting epinephrine level. There were no significant differences between the TM and control groups for any of the Type A behavior or Spielberger anger expression scale components. Regression analysis revealed that the Type A behavior components verbal competition, rapid, and explosive were predictive of diastolic blood pressure reactivity and heart rate reactivity. The Spielberger angerout component was predictive of both resting and response values of heart rate and catecholamines.

These findings support the hypotheses that TM is associated with (1) reduced blood pressure reactivity to stress, and (2) altered beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity. The results also support previous research showing TM’s long-term effects of lowered blood pressure. Source: DAI, 48, no. 06B, (1987): 1612

#### Morehead, Paul James — Physiology

Prevention of cardiovascular disease in Maharishi Ayur-Veda participants: a cross-sectional study of carotid atherosclerosis

Order No. 3374437

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of mortality in developed countries. Previous research on Maharishi Ayur-Veda indicates reduction in cardiovascular risk factors and events, including decreased blood pressure, carotid atherosclerosis and all cause mortality.

Maharishi Ayur-Veda is Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s revival of an ancient system of natural health care and includes mind, body, behavioral and environmental modalities to enliven the field of consciousness at the basis of all physiological functioning.

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate effects of long-term practice of Maharishi Ayur-Veda in a community setting on carotid artery blockage, blood pressure and serum lipid measures. Possible mediators of carotid blockage were also explored.

One hundred fifty-four adult subjects (n=74 MAV and n=80 controls) were included in this study. The Maharishi Ayur-Veda group included subjects from southeast Iowa who had been practicing the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program for greater than 5 years (mean=27 years). Among other MAV modalities widely practiced were the group practice of the TM-Sidhi program with Yogic Flying, yoga postures (asanas), a breathing exercise (pranayama), herbal supplements, and vegetarian diet. Controls were selected from the Stroke Detection Plus database of southeast Iowa clients.
All subjects were measured on the primary outcome, carotid artery blockage, by modified duplex ultrasound.

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age, gender, body-mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking and exercise indicated significantly less carotid blockage in the MAV group (0.26 ± .37) compared to controls (0.36 ± .62) (p = 0.01). ANCOVA indicated significant difference between MAV and controls on systolic blood pressure (MAV 118.45 mm Hg ± 13.37, vs. controls 129.70 mm Hg ± 15.52; p=0.01), and HDL cholesterol (MAV 60.60 mg/dL ± 15.09, vs. controls 47.78 mg/dL ± 13.96; p=0.05). Systolic blood pressure was found to be a possible mediator of the effects of treatment on carotid blockage.

The results of this study provide further evidence for the effect of Maharishi Ayur-Veda on CVD risk factors. It is recommended that Maharishi Ayur-Veda, as a comprehensive preventative approach to cardiovascular disease, be incorporated into public health programs.

#### Muehlman, John M. — Maharishi Vedic Science

Maharishi’s Vedic mathematics at the elementary level: improving achievement, affect, and mental mathematics through Vedic sutra based computation

Order No. 9431798

Maharishi’s Vedic Mathematics offers a new, holistic approach to mathematics and mathematics education. Its range extends from the most basic skills of counting and computation to the precise understanding of how the unified structure of pure consciousness knows and thereby quantifies its own infinite status. At the primary level, Maharishi’s Vedic Mathematics includes arithmetic operations based on Vedic sutras, the origin of number in the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness, and Maharishi’s Transcendental MeditationŒ technique.

On one level, the Vedic sutras describe actual algorithms for computation. However, Maharishi explains that on a deeper level, each sutra or aphorism produces a high degree of coherence and orderliness in the brain facilitating the rapid and precise solution to the computation. Their use in conjunction with the other technologies of Maharishi’s Vedic Mathematics cultures the ability of the mind to function from the level of pure consciousness–the unified field of all the laws of nature– while involved in solving a specific mathematical problem. This brings harmony with natural law, perfect accord with all the laws of nature.

Results from this empirical study of Vedic sutra based computation at the third grade level indicated that the general method of Vedic multiplication gave rise to significantly higher achievement scores, better retention, more mental mathematics, and greater overall enjoyment than the standard approach to multiplication. Also, results related to checking indicated that students were able to detect significantly more of their incorrect answers with the Vedic Check method as compared to the standard method of checking. After all students involved in the study knew both techniques of multiplication, 75 percent stated that they liked the Vedic sutra based approach the best and preferred to learn more about it next year.

Based on these results and the research review of Maharishi’s Transcendental MeditationŒ and TM-SidhiŒ program, a foundational area of Maharishi’s Vedic Mathematics, there is reason to conclude that Maharishi’s Vedic Mathematics connects mathematics to pure consciousness and develops the students’ ability to think and act in accord with the total potential of natural law while solving mathematics problems. Thus, Maharishi’s Vedic Mathematics is a means to develop the students’ full potential, enlightenment, as they grow in the skill of computation. Source: DAI, 55, no. 07A, (1994): 1861

#### Narayanan, Vijayakumari — Maharishi Vedic Science

Research in Consciousness and Reading the Vedic Literature: An Integrated Program Offered by Maharishi Vedic Science for the Development of Consciousness Through Vedic Sound

Order No. 3479903

This dissertation presents the results from the Maharishi Program for Reading Vedic Literature in the original Sanskrit, a doctoral program structured by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi to evaluate the benefits on the level of mind, body, and environment from regular use of Vedic sound.

The reading program is based on a unique understanding of the nature of the sounds of the Vedic Literature as fundamental frequencies of intelligence, the laws of nature responsible for all evolutionary processes in creation, including the human physiology. The prediction that reading the sounds or listening to them enlivens the fundamental field of intelligence accessible within human awareness, which is the source of Vedic sound, was verified by the results of the practice. It was observed that results arising from the previously adopted practices of the Transcendental Meditation technique and the TM-Sidhi program, comprising research in consciousness, were also enhanced, with all technologies accelerating growth towards higher states of consciousness.

The author found that reading the Vedic Literature in the prescribed manner produced two broad categories of results: i) a new category comprising cognitions and insights into the structuring dynamics of Veda and Vedic Literature and the nature of reality; and, ii) a category of eight pre-existing groups of experiences, which showed marked enhancement during the research phase. These groups were: i) refined perception; ii) refined feeling; iii) cognitions of Vedic Devata and other manifestations of the impulses of creative intelligence responsible for administering creation; iv) spontaneous right action, and experiences revealing the structuring and organizing power of natural law; iv) nature support, infinite correlation, and fulfillment of desires; vi) bliss; vii) intuition and premonition; and, viii) experiences of the Self as the witness.

The integrated practice of the technologies used in this program did not obscure the results arising from reading the Vedic Literature, but analysis also revealed the contribution made by both the “eyes-closed” and “eyes-open” methods to accelerated growth during the research phase, and more details of holistic growth of consciousness. Thus, the results show the value of this integrated approach for the holistic development of higher states of consciousness.

#### Oaas, Taoline — Management

Application of Consciousness-Based Education in Thailand to Create Sufficiency Economy: Theory, Documentation, and Future Directions

Order No. 3563432

Strategies to actualize the noble, people-centered development goals for Thailand based in the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy have been carefully drafted by Thai policy makers. However, their own assessments reveal that such strategies have yielded at best minimal success.

This dissertation brings forward a new, innovative strategy—developing total brain functioning through Consciousness-Based education—and examines how this strategy can swiftly realize the Thai goals, ideal as they are.

To this end, this dissertation documents a clear picture of how Consciousness-Based education can powerfully support the actualization of the Thai goals. It considers Sufficiency Economy and Thai development plans in light of two ongoing Consciousness-Based education projects in Thailand that the author helped initiate, develop, and teach; how Consciousness-Based education develops total brain functioning; over 350 peer-reviewed studies conducted worldwide; and outcomes of Consciousness-Based education projects in other countries. Specifically, the dissertation discusses: • Thailand’s development goals, based on Sufficiency Economy, that envision a nation whose citizens are free and happy; have sufficient food and comfort; are healthy, ethical, creative, and knowledgeable; participate in life-long learning; enjoy a prospering free-market economy; uphold traditional Thai values; preserve natural resources and improve the environment. Further, the nation is self-immune to fluctuations in global markets and internal and external conflicts; • how Consciousness-Based education develops total brain functioning, considering (a) theoretical knowledge of consciousness, (b) a practical technology to experience consciousness directly to wake up the total brain—the Transcendental Meditation technique—and, (c) innovative teaching methodologies; • how more than 350 research studies suggest that Consciousness-Based education can actualize specific Thai development goals; and • self-reports from the author’s personal experience with Consciousness-Based education in Thailand, highlighting Dhammajarinee Witthaya secondary school and Department of Science of Creative Intelligence for Management, Rajapark Institute, including self-reports from students, faculty, parents, and administrators that illustrate the effectiveness of Consciousness-Based education in actualizing the Thai development goals.

In conclusion, this dissertation proposes future research and development of Consciousness-Based education in Thailand that includes creating a Consciousness-Based education institution in every province and assessing outcomes over five years using the Thai government’s own standards.

#### Oates, Patricia Ferguson — Maharishi Vedic Science

The program of reading Vedic literature in Maharishi Vedic Science: Fundamental principles and application

Order No. 3130318

This paper explores eight basic principles of a program of reading Vedic Literature for its sound value (in conjunction with the practice of the Maharishi Transcendental MeditationSM and TM-Sidhi® programs) and experiential results of applying this program as a research project in Maharishi Vedic ScienceSM. These principles of reading Vedic Literature are from the writings of His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, leading expert in the field of consciousness, and Dr. Tony Nader, M.D., Ph.D., an eminent scholar in neurophysiology and in Maharishi Vedic Science, who has documented one-to-one correspondences in structure and function between the human physiology and Vedic Literature.

Maharishi has clarified the unique nature of the sounds of Veda and Vedic Literature: these sounds or vibrations are spontaneously expressed within atma, the field of pure consciousness, due to its self-interacting nature. As reverberations of consciousness, these sounds are the laws of nature, the precursors and inner nature of material creation, including the human physiology. When one recites or listens to these sounds, therefore, the field of self-referral consciousness, the home of all the laws of nature, is enlivened.

Maharishi and Dr. Tony Nader indicate that reading Vedic Literature (1) cultures holistic brain function, (2) cultures the sequence of Natural Law, bringing life in accord with the laws of nature, (3) enlivens corresponding qualities of consciousness, (4) enlivens corresponding anatomic structures, (5) clears and balances the physiology, (6) enlivens the sequence of proper neuronal activity, (7) prepares a fertile ground for other technologies of Maharishi Vedic Science, and (8) enhances and accelerates growth of higher states of consciousness.

Reading Vedic Literature, the author found that experiences of growth of consciousness were marked and corresponded to the principles listed above. In addition to enriching experiences from the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® programs, reading Vedic Literature produced outcomes unique to this program. Future subjective and objective exploration will establish a fuller understanding of the nature and value of the program. In the meanwhile, this research project enhanced both knowledge of the field and holistic growth of the researcher.

#### Oates, Robert M. Jr. — Maharishi Vedic Science

Consciousness and the quantum: Maharishi’s self-interacting dynamics of consciousness as the interpretation of quantum mechanics

Order No. 3417233

From the beginning of the quantum era in 1900, physicists and philosophers wrestled unsuccessfully with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Although the probabilistic predictions for large numbers of quantum events were impressively confirmed experimentally, no persuasive understanding of the workings of the quantum realm — and especially of the motions and interactions of individual quanta — had been offered. This dissertation intended to establish a consciousness-based interpretation of quantum mechanics through the comparison of what had been often called conventional quantum mechanics with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s self-interacting dynamics of consciousness . In Part One, the current state of quantum interpretation was reviewed from a historical perspective, with the twin goals of (1) demonstrating that the materialist paradigm, along with its investigative modality, objective science, did not apply at the level of individual quanta and their interactions, and of (2) establishing conventional quantum mechanics as the most suitable and defensible version of quantum mechanics available (though it offered no understanding of the independent reality of the quantum realm). In Part Two, Maharishi’s theories of consciousness were laid out, with reliance as far as practicable on quotations from his published works, in the interests of both clarity and authenticity. Maharishi’s theories were shown to be based, not on individual consciousness, but rather on an unbounded, omnipresent field of consciousness (like the gravitational field or the electromagnetic field), which, by virtue of its nature as consciousness, knows itself, thus stirring up fluctuations or vibrations in the abstract field of consciousness that appear first as subtle sound and then as ‘material particles.’ In Part Three, quantum mechanics was compared against Maharishi’s theories of consciousness, resulting in point-for-point isomorphism in even the most arcane details. The conclusions were that (1) quantum mechanics and Maharishi’s self-interacting dynamics appeared to describe the same underlying reality, (2) aspects of quantum mechanics that appeared unresolvable conundrums, when viewed from the materialist perspective, appeared natural, and even necessary, from a consciousness-based perspective, and (3) Maharishi’s self-interacting dynamics of consciousness therefore appeared as the first comprehensive and persuasive interpretation of quantum mechanics, a consciousness-based interpretation including the motion and interactions of individual quanta.

#### Olson-Sorflaten, Theresa Meredith — Psychology

Increased personal harmony and integration as effects of Maharishi Gandharva music on affect, physiology, and behavior: the psychophysiology of an evolving audience.

Order No. 9534648

This dissertation presents a theoretical understanding of Maharishi Gandharva VedaSM music and five exploratory studies on its integrating effects for the listener. Experiment 1 measured immediate pre-post effects of five live concerts (N = 697), using a specially created self-report bipolar adjective check list based on Maharishi Ayurveda, measuring balanced and imbalanced affect. (1) The concerts significantly balanced affect on three orthogonal scales, indicating reduced tension, decreased irritability, and less lethargy (p <.0001); (2) females changed more than males on the first two dimensions; (3) greater pre-post changes occurred in the evening compared to afternoon performances. Experiment 2 (N = 188) found no social compliance effects. Also, unfamiliar Maharishi Gandharva Veda music produced greater balance on the tension dimension than did familiar, liked Western Baroque.

Experiments 3 and 4 were pilot EEG experiments with single subjects. Experiment 3 found that Maharishi Gandharva Veda music improved psychophysiological balance as indicated by increased global EEG alpha and theta activity and by changes in the subject’s Maharishi Ayur-Vedic pulse taken by a trained physician. Experiment 4 found frontal beta power increased, associated with subjective experiences of bliss.

Experiment 5 measured immediate effects of Maharishi Gandharva Veda music on 27 psychiatric, institutionalized geriatrics randomly assigned to two groups–20 min five days a week for eight weeks of Maharishi Gandharva Veda music or Western Baroque music. Previous investigators have shown that the Western Baroque selections had significant therapeutic effects. No significant changes were found in either group for the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale or Fairview Self-Help Scale, which were administered every two weeks six hours after the session. Thus, neither Maharishi Gandharva Veda music nor Western Baroque had long-term therapeutic effects for this elderly psychiatric population for the amount of exposure to the music that they received. However, structured observations during the music indicated the Maharishi Gandharva Veda group demonstrated greater improvement in physical and social behavior.

Together, the five experiments suggest Maharishi Gandharva Veda music can be a powerful tool for balancing the individual’s mind, body, and behavior. Further research is needed to confirm these initial findings. Source: DAI, 56, no. 06A, (1995): 2039

#### Parker, Ronald J. D. — Physics

The effects of cold dark matter on big bang nucleosynthesis.

Order No. 8918486

We show that the annihilation of cold, weakly-interacting dark matter candidates (chi) subsequent to chi chi freeze-out can significantly affect the primordial abundance of light elements. The largest effects are (1) between the n/p freeze-out temperature (T = 0.7 MeV) and the onset of nucleosynthesis at T = 0.1 MeV, chi chi annihilations increase the n/p ratio, leading to increased 4He production; (2) following 4He synthesis, baryonic products n, n(bar), p of chi chi annihilations dissociate some the the 4He into D and 3He, leading to increased D + 3He abundances; (3) toward the end of nucleosynthesis, neutrons from chi chi annihilation lead to n + 7Be to become p + 7Li, resulting in increased 7Li + 7Be production for low values of eta = n (sub)b / n (sub)gamma and decreased 7Li + 7Be production for large eta, and (4) long after nucleosynthesis, once the universe cools below T = 1 keV, the electromagnetic shower produced by electrons, positrons and photons from residual chi chi annihilations cause further dissociation of 4He, leading to increased D + 3He abundances. The most important result is that for Direc and Majorna neutrinos, the 7Li constraints on eta from SBBN are noticeably affected, with larger values of eta being favored.

A summary of scattering rates for processes in the electromagnetic shower, containing corrections to numerous misprints in other sources, is presented in an Appendix. A listing of FORTRAN code used in the shower calculation is also included. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of Maharishi’s Vedic Science, an ancient science which presents both knowledge and experience of the transcendental basis of life. Source: DAI, 50, no. 05B, (1989): 1987

#### Pearson, Craig Alan — Maharishi Vedic Science

The supreme awakening: Maharishi’s model of higher states of consciousness applied to the experiences of individuals through history (Maharishi Mahesh Yogi).

Order No. 3053342

This dissertation extends and elaborates a theory of human development which significantly advances what is commonly considered possible for human life. The research entailed collection and multiple analysis of historical texts, specifically personal descriptions of exalted experiences from a range of individuals representing a range of cultural, religious, and historical periods.

These accounts were collected and analyzed in the light of the understanding of higher states of consciousness brought to light from the ancient Vedic tradition of knowledge by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Maharishi has described the range of human development as consisting of seven states of consciousness altogether; beyond the three common states of waking, dreaming, and deep sleep, he has described four higher states of consciousness, termed Transcendental Consciousness, Cosmic Consciousness, God Consciousness, and Unity Consciousness. This dissertation compiles and analyzes experiences suggestive of the first two of the higher states, Transcendental Consciousness and Cosmic Consciousness.

The accounts were analyzed (1) in terms of the chief features of higher states of consciousness as set forth by Maharishi, (2) in light of the results of the extensive scientific research on higher states of consciousness (as elicited by Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation(r) and TM-Sidhi(r) programs) that has been conducted over the past 35 years, (3) in light of the proposed identity between pure consciousness and the unified field of all the laws of nature, and (4) in terms of the meta-themes of experience that emerge from these accounts taken collectively. The results suggest that higher states of consciousness, experienced even as glimpses, are universal, i.e., that they are independent of cultural background and historical epoch. The results extend and elaborate the model of higher states of consciousness and demonstrates the model’s power to illuminate descriptions of exalted experiences by individuals through history.

#### Pohlman, David Matthew — Maharishi Vedic Science

Unfolding spiritual potential through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs and reading Vedic literature

Order No. 3130319

His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi explains that complete spiritual development results from the full development of human consciousness. This paper explains and demonstrates how regular practice of Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation® and TM- Sidhi® programs, and reading Vedic Literature in Sanskrit, promotes spiritual development through growth toward higher states of consciousness.

For three academic years, I practiced these technologies for the development of consciousness and recorded my experiences of growth in a journal. In this paper, I present my journal experiences in light of Maharishi’s explanation of the role of transcendence and higher states of consciousness in living one’s religion and understanding scripture. Specifically, I present my journal experiences in a scripture-experience exercise in which I examine the relationship between my own experiences of spiritual growth, through the development of consciousness, and selected teachings from religious scripture. My scripture-experience exercise utilizes the canonical Christian Gospels, as well as selections from Buddhist and Taoist texts.

The results of the scripture-experience exercise illustrate that (1) the practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM- Sidhi programs, along with reading Vedic Literature in Sanskrit, facilitated the growth of my consciousness and deepened my sense of spiritual development, and (2) I was able to make personally meaningful and relevant connections between my experiences of growth and a selection of religious texts. These results suggest that the experience of transcendence and the development of higher states of consciousness through the practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs, and reading Vedic Literature, augment spiritual growth and scriptural understanding.

#### Rainforth, Maxwell V. — Psychology

Crime prevention and rehabilitation through the Transcendental Meditation and TM- Sidhi programs: two evaluation studies of a Consciousness-Based approach

Order No. 9971791

Two studies are reported on the application to offender rehabilitation and crime prevention of a Consciousness- Based approach utilizing the Transcendental Meditation and TM- Sidhi programs of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Study I followed recidivism rates over 15 years among former inmates who learned the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program at a maximum security prison in California. Survival analysis controlling for 22 subject profile and criminal background variables found significantly lower rates of re-arrest leading to felony conviction among inmates instructed in the TM technique compared to matched controls. Lower recidivism rates were observed during the follow-up period among the TM group than among the control subjects (46.7% versus 66.7%). This difference was significant (p = .0008) in a Cox regression analysis, which showed that the reduction in the risk of recidivism was 43.5%. Analysis of long- term relapse patterns, using a split population Weibull model with covariates, indicated that 58.1% of the TM group versus 73.7% of the control group would eventually re-offend (p = .01). Significant reductions in recidivism in TM subjects compared to controls were also found on a measure of severity of re- offending (p = .023). Study 2 was a prospective experiment on the effects of an eight-week assembly of approximately 4,000 participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs in Washington, D.C. during 1993. Time series analysis of FBI weekly crime data controlled for effects of weather variables, daylight, police staffing, historical crime trends and annual patterns in the District of Columbia, as well as trends in neighboring cities. Results showed that violent crimes against persons (i.e., homicides, rapes, and assaults) dropped significantly during the Demonstration Project, corresponding with increases in the size of the group; the maximum decrease was 23.3% (p < 2 × 10 -9) coincident with the peak number of participants in the group during the final week of the assembly. The time series analysis also indicated that a permanent group of 4,000 coherence-creating experts in the District would have a long-term effect of reducing HRA crimes by 48%. These results are discussed in terms a theoretical model for the effects of development of consciousness on causes of crime identified by standard criminological theories. Source: DAI, 61, no. 04A (2000): p.1625

#### Ramberg, Jan Bengt Tonnes — Maharishi Vedic Science

The effects of reading the Vedic Literature on personal evolution in the light of Maharishi Vedic Science and Technology

Order No. 9933982

Maharishi Vedic Science, founded and organized by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, includes a body of fundamental principles about consciousness, and mental techniques to directly experience consciousness in its pure state. Maharishi Vedic Science locates pure, unqualified consciousness as the fundamental level of both subjective and objective creation. This pure consciousness can be experienced and enlivened through the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation‘ and TM-Sidhi‘ programs. This experience directly verifies the principles of Maharishi Vedic Science. Striking quantitative and qualitative similarities have been found between the description of pure consciousness in Maharishi Vedic Science and the most basic level of nature’s functioning described by modern physics as the Unified Field. These similarities indicate that pure consciousness and the Unified Field are identical. Maharishi describes how, by interacting with itself in an orderly manner, pure consciousness, the Unified Field, evolves the whole universe from within its own structure. The sounds of this orderly self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are found in the evolutionary set sequence of sounds in the Vedic Literature. Through the momentum of evolution, the Vedic sounds develop into more concrete expressions such as forms of sounds, particles of matter, congregations of particles, and finally the whole universe. Maharishi explains that replicating these sounds by reading the Vedic Literature in its correct sequence enlivens their evolutionary qualities in the reader’s consciousness, leading to improvements in all expressions of individual functioning.

Personal experiences during a time period when the Vedic Literature was read on a regular basis showed increased support of nature, improved personal evolution, and a number of positive effects in the following nine areas: individual consciousness, ego, emotions, mental capacity, mental perception, sensory perception, physiology, action and behavior, and the environment. All predictions derived from statements by Maharishi about the outcome of the reading were supported by the experiences. Some of the strongest support came for the prediction that reading of the Vedic Literature promotes evolution of consciousness, which translates into holistic growth of the individual and improvements in all areas of society. Source: DAI, 60, no. 06A (1999): p. 2065

#### Rao, Manjunath H.S. — Management

Exploring the Role of Standard Costing in Lean Manufacturing Enterprises: A Structuration Theory Approach

Order No. 3563433

Lean accounting experts have argued that use of standard costing in lean manufacturing enterprises is a non-value added activity. They have asserted that the use of standard costing systems in lean manufacturing environments can give rise to anomalies in performance measurement and reporting. Yet, lean accounting experts have also provided anecdotal evidence suggesting that many lean manufacturers continue to use standard costing and variance analysis even after lean management methods are pervasively implemented.

This research study, the first cross-organizational survey in the US of standard cost accounting practices in mature lean manufacturing business units, was undertaken to examine two main research objectives: (a) to understand the current state of practice with regard to use of standard costing and variance analysis (SCVA) in mature lean manufacturing enterprises in US, and (b) to understand the reasons why lean manufacturers might choose to retain standard costing even after pervasive implementation of lean management methods.

Based on responses from 49 identified lean manufacturers, the results show that 46 (94%) lean manufacturing companies continue to use SCVA. A chi-square test was used to test the hypothesis that the minimum majority (50%) of the identified mature lean manufacturers will discard standard costing. The test showed that the number of identified mature lean manufacturing enterprises in the sample that have discarded standard costing is significantly lower than the expectation.

The evaluation of reasons behind continuing use of SCVA was limited by small sample size. Yet, the pattern of responses suggests that the majority of the reported lean manufacturing enterprises seem to retain SCVA due to the existence of legacy arrangements such as use of monument machines, low knowledge of lean by accountants, and continued use of legacy ERP systems, which might be contributing factors for continued retention of SCVA.

The researcher offers guidance for future quantitative and qualitative studies. The researcher takes a position that the existence of legacy factors may be indicative of institutionalization of SCVA such that these practices may have become part of organizational culture over a period of time.

#### Rawal, Sunil Christopher — Physics

Dynamical supersymmetry breaking at the weak scale and the determination of the dilaton amd moduli vevs.

Order No.9713471

This dissertation demonstrates a mechanism whereby generic string-inspired supergravity models naturally and dynamically break supersymmetry and determine the vevs of the dilaton, moduli and Higgs fields. The key to the mechanism is to make an explicit construction of string-inspired supersymmetric models renormalized at M sub z where the parameters are considered as a function of undetermined field vevs. The field dependence of the gravitino mass and gauge coupling at low energies provides sufficient structure to determine the vevs of all scalar fields. We determine necessary conditions for stable minima (and hence a dynamically determined gravitino mass) in supersymmetric SU(N) models. In the context of the SSM, renormalization effects of the top-quark Yukawa eventually trigger instability of the potential at the origin. Thus, supersymmetry breaking naturally turns on at the weak-scale. The excellent phenomenology of the SSM is then inherited by our mechanism. We show that a mu-term of non-renormalizable origin naturally stabilizes the theory. With these demonstrations in hand, we go on to explain how the mechanism avoids non-renormalization theorems of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. Source: DAI, 57, no. 11B, (1997): 7014

#### Reeks, Dori L. — Psychology

Improved quality of life in Iowa through the Maharishi Effect.

Order No.9114491

Numerous studies of diverse populations and cultures on the city, state, national and international levels have demonstrated that group practice of the Transcendental MeditationŒ (TM) and TM-SidhiŒ program improves the quality of life as indicated by such measures as reductions in crime, traffic fatalities, unemployment and inflation. Several recent studies have indicated that Iowa has a low level of social stress and high level of quality of life relative to the rest of the United States. Since a large group of TM and TM-Sidhi program participants has been present at Maharishi International University in Fairfield, Iowa since 1979, the present study tested the hypothesis that monthly increases in the size of this group have contributed to improvements in Iowa’s quality of life.

The study used Box-Jenkins time series transfer function analysis on monthly rates of unemployment, crime, and traffic fatalities and on an equally weighted composite index of these three variables from 1979 to 1986. The hypothesis of the study was consistently supported. Transfer function estimates indicated significant and sizable reductions in the monthly rates of unemployment (p <.004), and traffic fatalities (p <.0001) at a lag of one month, and an immediate decrease in the same month (lag 0) in crime rate (p =.05). In addition, a significant improvement in quality of life on the composite index (p <.004) was found at lag one. These results were generally quite robust with respect to different specifications of competing noise models. The final transfer function models were objectively identified as those which met the usual diagnostic criteria and which also minimized the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), a measure of optimal model choice.

Time series transfer function analysis was chosen for this study because it provides both a rigorous and conservative estimate of the magnitude of the influence of the independent variable. This method controlled for the effects of trends and cycles such as those due to seasonal changes, business cycles, and holidays, and thus eliminated these alternative explanations. The introduction of the seat belt law in 1986 was also studied and did not influence the results for the traffic fatality variable. State officials were queried concerning other possible alternative hypotheses and no viable alternative explanations were found.

Therefore results of the study upheld the hypothesis that the quality of life in Iowa improved when numbers of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program increased. Source: DAI, 51, no. 12B, (1990): 6155

#### Reick, Martin — Physiology

Mechanisms of AH receptor down-regulation: Involvement of a labile protein, a calcium dependent protease, and a protein kinase

Order No. 9633803

In this dissertation we present evidence that CYP1A1 transcription and in vivo DNA-protein interactions at XREs are down-regulated in parallel with the DNA-binding activity of the ligand activated AH receptor complex (AHRC). This indicates that down-regulation of AH receptor DNA-binding activity is important in regulating CYP1A1 transcription, and that the AHRC is required continuously to maintain transcription. We show also that the down-regulation process depends on protein synthesis, and that it involves degradation of the AHR subunit but not of ARNT. AHRC down-regulation is a Ca$sp{2+}$ dependent process, since both depletion of intracellular Ca$sp{2+}$ stores, and interference with Ca$sp{2+}$ currents can inhibit down-regulation in Hepa-1 cells. We also demonstrate that a specific inhibitor of the Ca$sp{2+}$ dependent protease calpain, as well as the protein kinase inhibitors H-7, calphostin C, and bisindolylmaleimide can block AHRC down-regulation. These findings are functionally relevant, since treatments that block down-regulation increase in AHRC dependent CAT gene expression substantially. Ca$sp{2+}$ measurements reveal a very rapid and transient change in intracellular free (Ca$sp{2+}$) in response to 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo- (p) -dioxin (TCDD).

Thus, TCDD orchestrates a second response, that starts with a rapid rise in (Ca$rmsp{2+}rbracksb{i}$ and results in the activation of a Ca$sp{2+}$ dependent protease, which in turn is instrumental in AHRC down-regulation. Down-regulation involves components in addition to calpain since: (1) In vitro calpain digestion of the AHRC results in partial digestion products not observed in vivo, which implicates secondary proteases. (2) Calpains are too stable to mediate cycloheximide action. (3) Down-regulation can be blocked by cycloheximide after TCDD-induced $rmlbrack Casp{2+}rbracksb{i}$ transients have passed.

Finally, we present data suggesting that ionomycin might induce AHRC/ARNT complex formation in a ligand independent manner. Also, experiments with caffeine show that AHRC dependent CAT gene expression can be elevated without changing the levels of liganded AHRC, the kinetics of AHRC activation, or down- regulation. This increase in AHRC mediated transactivation is probably due to elevated $rmlbrack Casp{2+}rbracksb{i}.$ Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B (1996): p. 3580

#### Richards, William Thom — Maharishi Vedic Science

Additions to John L. Holland’s theory of career choice and development based on Maharishi Vedic Science

Order No. 3173295

Holland’s theory of career choice matches personality types and occupation or environment types. Maharishi Vedic ScienceSM places career choice in the larger framework of dharma. This study investigates the following question: Can the concept of dharma from Maharishi Vedic Science, including the concepts of heart and mind, natural action, absolute dharma and higher states of consciousness, expand and give greater precision to the theory of career choice presented by John L. Holland?

This study uses both quantitative and qualitative procedures in the context of exploratory methodology. Thirty-two advanced teachers of the Transcendental Meditation® program participated as subjects. All subjects completed standardized tests (SDS, PCI, CASI-Job Satisfaction Scale, Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire and a higher states of consciousness Experience Questionnaire), and were interviewed in a structured format.

There were four major findings of this study: (1) A Holistic Factor, representing “action in accord with dharma ,” also described as “expansion of consciousness as related to career,” was operationally defined as a combination (by means of factor analysis) of higher states experiences (Experience Questionnaire), happiness (Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire), restedness (a Likert scale) and congruence (Richards Agreement Index); (2) The Holistic Factor correlated highly with job satisfaction; (3) Evidence was found for a heart-mind division of Holland’s personality types, with Artistic, Social and Enterprising on the heart side and Conventional, Realistic and Investigative on the mind side; (4) Qualities of high Holistic Factor individuals were identified in terms of code families derived from qualitative analysis of the structured interviews.

There were three results not anticipated by the research questions: (1) A new calculation for congruence (the Richards Agreement Index) was developed which produced scores correlating better with job satisfaction than those of the commonly used Iachan Agreement Index; (2) Large, significant, and unexpected gender differences were found with regard to all major concepts investigated in this study; (3) Stages of coding qualification and stages of exploratory analysis not found in qualitative analysis literature were developed and used in this study.

The concept of dharma as presented in Maharishi Vedic Science is found to expand and give greater precision to Holland’s theory.

#### Robertson, Richard William — Physiology

Functional role of diverse sequence xenobiotic response elements (dxes) in regulation of cytochrome P-4501a1 (CYP1A1) gene transcription

Order No. 9636934

This dissertation presents evidence that activation of CYP1A1 gene transcription by aryl hydrocarbons is a multicomponent process involving interactions of the AH receptor complex (AHRC) with xenobiotic response elements (XREs) and interactions of secondary transcription factors with diverse sequence xenobiotic response elements (DXEs) and that interactions at DXEs are functionally important and are dependent on interactions of functional AHRC with XREs. Interactions at DXEs appear to be important due to the fact that DXEs can cooperate with XREs to confer on a reporter gene responsiveness to aryl hydrocarbons and the fact that the appearance of in vivo interactions at DXEs during activation parallels those at XREs as well as the fact that the kinetics of appearance of these interactions correlate with the levels of expression of P4501A1 mRNA in different cell lines. Dependence of interactions at DXEs on the interactions of functional AHRC with XREs is supported by the following findings: (1) Interactions at XREs and DXEs appear in parallel. (2) Down-regulation of the AH receptor leads to disappearance of footprints at XREs and DXEs. (3) Inhibition of protein synthesis which is known to prevent down-regulation of the AH receptor, preserves footprints at DXEs and XREs. (4) Cell line- specific differences in the kinetics of in vivo interactions at XREs are parallel at DXEs. (5) AHs fail to induce in vivo footprints at both XREs and DXEs in Hepa 1 mutant cells lacking functional nuclear AH receptor complex. (6) The appearance and disappearance of in vivo footprints at DXEs could not be correlated with changes in constitutive DXE-specific DNA- binding activities and instead correlated with changes in the DNA-binding activity of the AH receptor. The in vivo and in vitro findings reported here regarding the relationship between the interactions at XREs and DXEs are consistent with a chromatin remodelling mechanism during activation of CYP1A1 transcription which is induced by the activated AH receptor exposing previously inaccessible DXEs for interactions with constitutively present nuclear factors. Finally, a link is made between CYP1A1 gene regulation, the unified field described by physics and Maharishi’s Vedic Science. Source: DAI, 57, no. 07B, (1996): 4210

#### Robinson, Charles Edward — Physiology

Mechanisms of inflammation in ulcerative colitis: a role for neutrophils and their free radicals

Order No. 9836285

Ulcerative Colitis (UC), a common form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), is characterized by recurrent episodes of acute colonic inflammation, associated with abdominal pain, cramping, and bloody diarrhea. Since current treatments for IBD are not ideal, there is a need to develop better clinical management of UC. We chose to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms through which inflammation and tissue damage in UC occurs.

Hypothesis. (1) The final common pathway which leads to tissue damage in UC is mediated primarily by reactive oxygen species (ROS), (2) neutrophils are the main source of these ROS, and (3) these neutrophils are attracted to the colonic mucosa and activated by circulating (plasma) factors and local (colonic) factors.

Aims and methods. To support the above hypothesis, we proposed three aims: (Aim 1) To determine whether plasma from UC patients is pro-inflammatory. To this end, we evaluated the respiratory burst of PMN after incubation with plasma from UC patients. (Aim 2) To determine whether colonic factors in UC patients are pro-inflammatory. To this end, we evaluated the expression of the PMN adhesion molecule CD11b after stimulation with colonic factors from UC patients. (Aim 3) To determine whether colonic tissues from UC patients have abnormally high levels of oxidative products. To this end, we developed and used a novel immunoblotting technique to analyze oxidation products in colonic tissue from IBD patients. Colonic tissues were analyzed for protein carbonyls, nitrotyrosine, and 4- hydroxynonenal (4-HNE).

Results and discussion. (1) Plasma from UC patients significantly enhanced the PMN oxidative burst compared to plasma from controls. (2) Colonic factors from patients with UC significantly up-regulated CD11b compared to colonic factors from controls. These two results suggest that plasma and colonic factors in UC are pro-inflammatory, and may, therefore, perpetuate chronic inflammation. (3) Nitrotyrosine and 4-HNE were significantly higher in CD than in controls. In UC, nitrotyrosine and 4-HNE were also elevated, but these values did not reach significance. These results suggest that the ulcerations and tissue damage, which are hallmark features of IBD, may be the result of above normal oxidative stress. There were no differences between the groups for protein carbonyls. Source: DAI, 59, no. 06B, (1998): 2698

#### Robinson, Donald Keith — Physiology

Health promotion in the elderly: Changes in endocrine function after three months of modern or traditional treatment

Order No. 9933980

Research shows that improved health in older age is possible through stress reduction and modifications in lifestyle, diet and exercise. In this prospective, randomized, clinical intervention study, healthy, independent, community-dwelling elderly subjects (65 years or older) were randomly assigned to one of two health promotion programs or to a usual-care control group. The traditional health promotion program, the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health (MVAH), included the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program and the herbal food supplement Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK). The modern health promotion program (MHP) included current diet and exercise practices recommended by national health organizations. Each group (n = 55) was tested at baseline and at three months for three important age- and health-related hormones: insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and melatonin (using the urinary metabolite 6-sulphatoxymelatonin, or 6-SM). Taking into account 60 health- and hormone-relevant outcome variables, ANCOVAs were performed on three-month pretest-to-posttest changes, comparing treatment groups and controls. There were no significant differences across groups for DHEAS and 6-SM at posttest. However, IGF-I at posttest was significantly higher in the MH (12.55 ± 4.83P group (12.55 ± 4.83 ng/ml change) than in the MVAH group (–5.07 ± 5.47 ng/ml change; p = 0.019). MHP women also increased significantly in IGF-I (12.73 ± 6.27 ng/ml change) compared to a decrease in MVAH women (–11.92 ± 6.37 ng/mI change; p < 0.009). Omitting women on estrogen replacement therapy eliminated most treatment effects in MHP women (0.19 ± 7.90 ng/ml change) while revealing an even larger decrease in IGF-I in the MVAH women (–16.00 ± 7.76 ng/ml change), and a slight increase in controls (2.74 ± 7.52 ng/ml change) (MVAH < controls, p = 0.085, trend). Associations of high-normal IGF-I levels with increased incidence of colon cancer in men, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and recurrence of breast cancer as well as decreased survival times have been reported. Thus, the significant three-month reduction of IGF-I in MVAH women may partially explain the previously reported reduced cancer mortality and cancer hospitalization associated with the TM program and MAK. The findings of high posttest IGF-I in MHP men, and the apparent enhancing effect of estrogens on IGF-I in MHP women, raise concerns about MHP practices and estrogen replacement efficacy with respect to IGF-I-related cancer risk.

#### Royer-Bounouar, Patricia Ann — Physiology

Transcendental Meditation technique: a new direction for smoking cessation programs.

Order No. 9000436

This prospective cohort study examined the effect of practice of the TM technique on smoking behavior during a period of 20 months. The subjects were 7070 individuals over 16 years of age who attended introductory lectures on the TM technique. Nine hundred and twenty-five (13%) of these learned the TM technique and 6145 (87%) did not. Prior to attending the lecture there were no differences in demographic variables or in smoking habits between the TM and non-TM groups. At the end of the study however, 33% of the smokers in the TM group had quit smoking as compared to 21% of those in the non-TM group (df = 1, chi squared = 3.85, p <.05). When regularity of practice of the TM technique was taken into account, it was found that 60% of those who meditated regularly twice each day had quit smoking as compared to 41% for those who meditated once each day, 21% for those who meditated irregularly or had stopped the practice, and 21% for those who never learned the TM technique (df = 3, chi squared = 18.25, p =.0004). The quit rates represented on the average a 12-month cessation period (SD = 7.57) for the meditators and a 10-month cessation period (SD = 8.54) for the non-meditators.

Furthermore, when quit and decreased rates were combined, it was found that 90% of those who practiced TM twice each day had quit or decreased smoking by the end of the study vs 71% for the once each day TM meditators, 55% for those who were irregular or no longer practiced TM, and 33% for the non-TM group (df = 3, chi squared = 35.734, p <.0001). These results strongly suggest a correlation between frequency of practice of the TM technique and increased likelihood of stopping smoking. Source: DAI, 50, no. 08B, (1989): 3428

Extensive artifact research was conducted. Some of the weighings were done under constant temperature and constant relative humidity.

Significant deviations from constancy of weight were found in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 mg for the 250-ml flasks and up to 0.06 mg for the 25-ml flasks. For sprouting seeds deviations of the same magnitude were found. Deviations of positive and negative amounts and zero results were obtained. Results were reproduced in blind experiments by five different experimenters. Experiments during eclipses implied a relationship of weight changes with planetary constellations. Source: DAI, 54, no. 03B, (1993): 1449

#### Ruth Faitler —

The Effect of the Transcendental Meditation® Technique on Self-Efficacy, Perceived Stress, and Quality of Life in Mothers in Uganda: A Model of Empowerment From Within

Order No. 3629592

Women in Uganda are among the most impoverished and least empowered in the world, living with a high degree of psychological distress and low quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of the Transcendental Meditation® (TM®) program on self-efficacy (one’s perceived ability to deal with challenges in life, and a critical component of empowerment), perceived stress, and mental and physical quality of life in women in Uganda.

A controlled study was conducted with 81 women who were served by a women’s empowerment organization in Kampala, Uganda. The participants were primarily single, illiterate mothers, average age 28 years. Subjects were assigned to either practice of the Transcendental Meditation program (n=42) or wait-list (delayed start) control group (n=39). The Transcendental Meditation technique is an effortless, systematic mental procedure practiced twice daily for 20 minutes.

Participants were measured using three questionnaires: the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Medical Outcomes Survey-HIV (MOS-HIV) with mental and physical health subscales. The primary outcome was self-efficacy, which affects overall mental and physical quality of life and is impacted by stress. Participants were administered all measures at baseline and three-month posttest.

Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) with baseline dependent scores as covariates was used. Results found an increase in self-efficacy ( p < .001), a decrease in perceived stress (p < .010), and improvement in mental and physical quality of life (p < .007).

Findings suggest that the Transcendental Meditation technique can by considered a practical method for developing empowerment in the lives of mothers in Uganda, by developing one’s sense of personal competence, or self-efficacy, by reducing perceived stress, and enhancing mental and physical quality of life, and thereby improving one’s ability to cope with, take initiative, and persevere in effectively handling life’s challenges. The TM technique ® is presented here as a new model for developing empowerment from within.

#### Rutto, Peter Kiprop — Management

The Influence of Rank, Tenure, and Years of Experience on Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in a Kenyan University

Order No. 3523282

This descriptive-correlational study explored the job satisfaction of Moi University academic staff members as measured by Job Descriptive Index and Job in General (JDI/JIG) scales, compared to faculty job satisfaction levels of Eastern Tennessee Community Colleges in the USA. Out of 738 academic staff of Moi invited to participate, 480 survey questionnaires were found to be usable for this study, yielding a response rate of 65%. Results of t-test for independent samples showed that Moi University staff were more satisfied with pay (p=.042), while Eastern Tennessee State staff had higher satisfaction with the JDI facet work on present job (p=.021). There were no significant differences between the two universities on the other JDI/JIG scales of opportunities for promotion, supervision, people on your present job and job in general.

The study also investigated the effects of rank, tenure and years of job experience on the facets of job satisfaction for Moi University academic staff , using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc multiple comparison, regression analysis. A statistically significant difference on pay and opportunities for promotion was found among academic ranks (p=.018; p=.017 respectively) at Moi University. Professors (M=32.3) were significantly more satisfied with pay than were senior lectures (M=24.4) and lecturers (M=23.5). Associate professors were significantly more satisfied with opportunities for promotion than were lecturers (M=29.4 versus M=22.8 respectively). Non-tenured academic staff had a higher mean score (M=29.4) compared to tenured academic staff (M=24.4) indicating they were more satisfied with pay than tenured staff.

Results of this research can be used by Moi University to target interventions to specific subgroups, by rank, tenure, and experience, for specific facets of job satisfaction. Qualitative research could provide more insight into the reasons for staff satisfaction levels at Moi. The present comparison of one Kenyan university and one USA University can be expanded to additional institutions for more insight into cross-cultural differences. A model from Consciousness-based Education is presented which suggested a fundamental approach to job satisfaction by reducing stress and improving creativity.

#### Saatcioglu, Fahri — Physics

Multiple DNA-protein interactions at the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)- responsive enhancer of the CYP1A1 gene.

Order No. 9025204

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P450IA1 (CYP1A1) gene is capable of both detoxifying polycyclic aromatic compounds, such as tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD), 3-methylcholanthrene and beta-napthoflavone, and converting some compounds to highly active carcinogens and mutagens. Both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms have been shown to be important in the regulation of the CYP1A1 gene. Previously, two xenobiotic response elements, XRE1 and XRE2, both of which can activate transcription of the CYP1A1 gene, were identified. We present evidence in the following chapters that three distinct factors, XF-A1, XF-A2, and XF-B, which has been identified as the Ah receptor, interact specifically with the XRE sequence motif at the PAH-responsive enhancer of the CYP1A1 gene. XF-A1 and XF-A2, which bind to the XRE motif, have not been described previously. Our footprinting analysis shows that, although XF-A1 and XF-A2, and the Ah receptor all bind to the same 15 base pair sequence domain, they interact with distinctly different nucleotides. Our analysis indicates that XF-A1 and XF-A2, and the Ah receptor are the products of different genes, that their expression is regulated differently, and that these two factors require different cofactors. Comparison of the binding activities of the Ah receptor, XF-A1 and XF-A2 for XRE1 and XRE2 reveal substantial differences in affinity. In addition, there are differences in the interaction of the Ah receptor with XRE1 and XRE2.

In particular, the following points can be made regarding these three factors: (1) XF-A1, XF-A2, and the Ah receptor are probably different gene products, since mutant cell lines defective in the Ah receptor have normal levels of XF-A1 and XF-A2 activity. (2) XF-A1 and XF-A2 activities are constitutively expressed in the nucleas whereas Ah receptor- related DNA-binding activity appears in the nucleus only after treatment with polycyclic compounds. (3) Zn2+ is an essential cofactor for the Ah receptor, but not for XF-A1 or XF-A2, consistent with the earlier hypothesis that the Ah receptor is a member of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor super- family. (4) The affinities of the Ah receptor, XF-A1 and XF-A2 for XRE2 are 15- and 50- fold weaker, respectively, than for XRE1, which suggests that the two XREs may differ in their contribution to CYP1A1 gene transcription. (5) In contrast to previous studies in Hepa1 cells, a single copy of either XRE has no discernible transcriptional activity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, but a 115-bp region containing both XREs has enhancer activity in response to both TCDD and cycloheximide. [Abstract shortened.] Source: DAI, 51, no. 08B, (1990): 3696

#### Salerno, John William — Physiology

Selective growth inhibition of human colon adenocarcinoma and malignant melanoma cell lines by sesame oil in vitro

Order No. 9133557

Ayurveda, an ancient, comprehensive and prevention-oriented system of natural health care, has highly recommended the topical use of sesame oil above other oils. Applied to the skin on a daily basis and to the colon on a seasonal basis, it is claimed to improve physiological balance, vitality and longevity. Sesame oil contains relatively high levels of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid, in the form of triglycerides. The antineoplastic properties of the essential fatty acids such as linoleic acid have been documented. Linoleic acid and its metabolites have been shown to selectively inhibit and kill a variety of human and animal tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo while affecting normal cells either significantly less or not at all.

Therefore, it was hypothesized that linoleic acid and sesame oil would inhibit the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma and human malignant melanoma cell lines to a greater extent in vitro than their normal counterparts, human colon epithelial cells or human melanocytes. Cells in culture were supplemented with linoleic acid at a dose range of 3-100 $\mu$g/ml. For lipase-digested and undigested sesame oil, a range of 10-300 $\mu$g/ml was used. Growth inhibition was determined by harvesting and counting the total number of cells by hemacytometer after five or eight days of incubation and comparing them to controls. The results showed that free linoleic acid and undigested sesame oil all had a significantly stronger inhibitory effect on both the malignant melanoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines than on the corresponding normal cell lines throughout most of the dosage ranges tested.

In comparison with other common vegetable oils and their major component fatty acids, the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, the monounsaturated fatty acid oleic acid, and the vegetable oils; olive, coconut and safflower all were tested on the malignant melanoma cells. Of these, only safflower, had a significantly selective inhibitory effect.

In conclusion, these results suggest vegetable oils with high linoleic acid content, such as sesame, may possess selective antineoplastic properties against the in vitro growth of malignant melanoma and colon adenocarcinoma. This finding appears to warrant further investigation into the clinical usefulness of the Ayurvedic procedure of topically applying sesame oil.

#### Sanchez, Wen Chien —Management

The influence of consumer knowledge on willingness to pay for non-genetically modified foods in Taiwan: A structural equation model.

Order No. 3417232

Genetically modified (GM) food and crops became commercially available in 1994. Since then, widespread debates and controversies about the use of biotechnology in food production have emerged, mostly in western countries.

This study examined willingness to pay for non-GM food in a Taiwan sample. In conjunction with this, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was evaluated to determine the relative importance of factors influencing purchasing behavior. In this study, Ajzen’s TPB model was extended to comprise two more constructs related to willingness to pay ( WTP ) for non-GM food. These two added factors were Knowledge about GM food and Self-identity . Distinguishing from previous TPB studies, this study employs path analysis to further explain the causal relationship in the model. A saturated TPB model was tested and an augmented TPB model was found to be a better framework in explaining influences on behavioral intentions.

Results indicated that the majority of respondents were willing to pay a 30% premium to avoid GM tofu. The total effects of Knowledge and PBC on WTP were negative and significant indicating that more knowledge about GM food and more perceived behavior control over choosing non-GM food result in willingness to pay more for avoiding GM food. The total effects of Self-identity and Subjective Norms on WTP were positive and significant indicating that one’s self-identity and perceived social pressure about eating non-GM food positively influence his or her willingness to pay for non-GM food. Furthermore, consumers’ knowledge about GM food positively influences their attitude and intentions toward non-GM food. These findings unequivocally substantiate that there is a demand for non-GM foods in Taiwan. This demand calls for alternative agriculture such as Maharishi Vedic Organic Agriculture which is introduced in this study.

#### Sands, William F. — Maharishi Vedic Science

Maharishi’s absolute theory of government in the Valmiki Ramayana

Order No. 9427917

This study attempts to demonstrate that the principles found in the Absolute Theory of Government of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi are the same as those upon which the ideal civilization of ancient Ayodhya, described in the Valmiki Ramayana, was founded.

Maharishi’s Absolute Theory of Government offers a method of enabling governments to more effectively solve their current problems and prevent new ones from arising; it promises to create an ideal society in which every citizen fulfills the deepest aspirations of individual life, and society as a whole lives fully in accord with Natural Law. Maharishi’s theory does not entail a specific system of government, but rather offers a technology that will enable any government to fulfill its objectives and bring fulfillment to the goals of its constitution. This technology has been well-supported by empirical research, performed in many locations throughout the world in a variety of cultural and sociological contexts.

According to Maharishi’s Absolute Theory of Government, the most effective government is a field of pure consciousness at the source of the material universe, which gives rise to and maintains the universe through its self-interacting dynamics. It is, in Maharishi’s account, the expert administrator, that has administered the universe for millions of years without a problem. It can be located as the simplest form of human awareness through the technologies of Maharishi’s Vedic Science, and on this basis it can become available to individual and collective life.

Maharishi’s political theory is not without precedent. The Valmiki Ramayana also describes an ancient civilization in which every citizen was fulfilled, harmonious, and prosperous, and lived in accord with Natural Law. The central hero of the Ramayana, Rama, is depicted as the ruler of the universe, the embodiment of Nature’s government, administering the diversity of the universe. During his reign, the citizens of Ayodhya enjoyed a perfect society in accord with Natural Law. The principles underlying the ideal society of Ayodhya appear to be identical to those that Maharishi upholds in his Absolute Theory of Government, thus providing Vedic authenticity to Maharishi’s teaching in this age. Source: DAI, 55, no. 06A, (1994): 1682

#### Sawhney, Sabita — Management

Effects of the TM Technique on Anxiety, Emotional Intelligence and Trust: Implications for Supply Chain Management

Order No. 3523283

Increased attention is being paid to supply chain partnerships in which trust has been recognized as a key influencing factor. Empirical studies have established that partnerships amongst companies based on trust avoid opportunism in the supply chain, reduce purchasing cost, and improve profitability.

Despite the importance of trust’ in improving the bottom-line for organizations, there is little work done on how to proactively develop trust between supply chain partners. Most of the existing work has held the view that trust develops over time as companies continue to work with each other, thus relying on a reactive process of self-selection. Predominantly, the topic has been approached from the viewpoint of what the trustee needs to do to promote trust development within a relationship. The existing literature does not make any reference to how a trustor’s own disposition to trust (DTT) may impact the development of trust.

The primary objective of this research was to develop a conceptual model linking the self-development technique, Transcendental Meditation, to an individual’s temperament, of which DTT is an important manifestation/component. The aim here was to provide a path to connect the regular practice of TM to DTT, thus navigating through other intervening constructs such as higher states of consciousness, trait anxiety, and trait emotional intelligence. The model was empirically tested by collecting data, using a self-administered survey, from 387 respondents. The participants were from 26 service and manufacturing companies that were randomly selected from Fairfield (Iowa) Area Chamber of Commerce. Due to the early stages of theory development, Partial Least Square technique was used to test the model.

The results provide strong support for the proposed hypothesis and the model, indicating that the regular practice of the TM technique cultivates a higher disposition to trust. The study also provides empirical support for the path through which the regular practice of TM manifests into DTT. These findings emphasize the importance of introducing TM practice in organizations to help develop greater trust internally among employees and externally with other partnering organizations.

#### Scaroni-Fisher, Mabel Marta — Physiology

A comparative risk assessment of chemical genetic engineering, and organic approaches to pest management.

Order No.9933981

As approximately 50% of the world’s food supply is destroyed each year by pests while the human population continues to expand rapidly, agricultural pest management is a global, serious problem. Chemical pesticides, the principal approach to managing pests, has been much analyzed, but relatively little attention has given to organic and genetic engineering methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative risk assessment of these three approaches, first generally and then in terms of a case study on Roundup Ready soybeans, a genetically modified crop.

The main risk with chemical pesticides is the development of pest resistance. Consequently, a greater percentage of the world’s crops are consumed by pests today than 50 years ago despite a thirty-fold increase in the use of chemicals. When the environmental and health problems of this approach are also considered, it is clear that chemicals not only carry unacceptable risks, they are unsustainable. For this reason the world will likely shift to one of the other two approaches.

The principal general risks of genetic engineering are escape of transgenes into the environment, development of pest resistance, harmful effects on non-target species, continued dependence on chemicals, toxic and allergenic health effects, and increase in antibiotic resistance. The risks of Roundup Ready soybeans in particular are increased use of Roundup, which has been shown to be acutely toxic to a significant number of organisms in the environment and to be potentially carcinogenic to agricultural workers and possibly consumers. Available evidence indicates that all these risks are real and potent. However, because no tests have been conducted to assess any of these risks for the long term, it is recommended that genetically engineered crops should not be commercialized until they are proven safe beyond a reasonable doubt.

The principal risk of the organic approach is the introduction of alien species for biological control, which can also result in effects on non-target species. However, if alien species are avoided, organic agriculture offers the least risk for managing pests effectively while maintaining or even increasing food production without endangering human health or the environment. Source: DAI, 60, no. 06B (1999): p. 2473

#### Schmidt-Wilk, Jane D. — Management

The Maharishi Corporate Development Program: growth of experience and understanding in international top management teams

Order No. 9703935

Popular reports indicate that training in meditation is being introduced into corporations worldwide, yet systematic analyses of such programs are rare. Three case studies document the experiences and perceptions of members of top management teams who learned the Maharishi Transcendental MeditationÎ technique in the context of corporate-supported programs. The cases were generated using semi-structured interviews based on open-ended questionnaires conducted with 24 persons in managerial positions from a Norwegian company in the oil and gas industry, a British computer sales subsidiary, and a Swedish firm in the field of power transmission, and their consultants.

The study revealed the series of decisions that the managers undertook in authorizing and sponsoring the Maharishi Corporate Development Program and in their personal decisions and strategies about when, where and how often to practice the Transcendental Meditation technique and how to interpret its effects. The managers indicated that (1) their personal experiences resulting from practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique and (2) systemic development of the management team were important factors in their decision to practice this technique on a regular basis.

Individual-level changes reported across the three cases included improved mental functioning, health and health-related habits, work relations, and performance, emotional growth and more enjoyable family life, which contribute to development of the management team. Team-level changes reported across the three cases included improved communication, increased mutual acceptance and awareness of company needs and values, fewer arguments, move to fact-based decision-making, greater trust, openness, and happiness, and greater team cohesiveness and alignment.

The personal outcomes reported by the managers are consistent with extensive published findings on the Transcendental Meditation program in the general population and indicate that the Maharishi Corporate Development Program meets the criteria described in the management literature for an effective leadership and team development program. According to Maharishi’s Absolute Theory of Management, these comprehensive changes spontaneously result from unfolding the organizing power of Natural Law in the awareness of the manager through practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

#### Sheppard II, William DeLime — Neuroscience

Pretrial EEG coherence as a predictor of semantic processing effects in a lexical decision task

Order No. 8820229

Twenty-four subjects were each presented 240 randomized trials of a lexical decision task (LDT) while connected to a 16-electrode EEG montage. EEG data were acquired for two seconds prior to the onset of each LDT trial. The LDT trial consisted of a fixation asterisk, a prime letter string, a pattern mask, and a target letter string. Following the lexical decision, the subject gave a verbal report identifying the prime as word or neutral and a number estimate of the confidence of that report. EEG alpha coherence, alpha power, and 3-30 Hz wide- band power from five different combinations of EEG electrodes were used to predict semantic effects in the LDT trials. Results showed significantly different relationships between coherence and semantic effects depending upon prime duration and prime- target relatedness. High pretrial coherence in the right hemisphere was correlated with greater processing efficiency in slow, related-prime trials. High pretrial coherence in the left hemisphere was correlated with greater prime identification accuracy in slow-prime trials; although for fast-prime trials, interhemispheric coherence was inversely correlated with prime identification accuracy. A model of the relationship between coherence and neural information processing is discussed. Source: DAI, 49, no. 09B, (1988): 3610

#### Shivaji, Ediyattumangalam R. — Management

Relationships between Patient Satisfaction, Quality, Outcomes and Ownership Type in US Hospitals: an Empirical Study

Order No. 3523284

Public concerns about rising health costs and deteriorating quality of service in the US have become a serious issue. The Institute of Medicine ( IOM) report brought out the need for overhauling the US Healthcare thoroughly. This report recommended that healthcare executives should focus on performance improvement, driven by process, data, and evidence rather than relying on technology or working harder. Healthcare organizations face multiple objectives and constraints, while implementing performance improvement.

The design of the current study was nonexperimental and the study analyzed available archival data on patient satisfaction, process of care quality measures and outcome of care measures. The study tested nine research hypotheses about the relationships between these measures. The study also brought out the main components contributing to patient satisfaction and process of care quality measures.

The study used the public data on US hospitals, downloaded from the CMS database, maintained by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid services, a federal government agency. Data from over 4,500 hospitals were used in the analysis.

The major findings are summarized as follows: 1. Five components of patient satisfaction were identified and the implications to hospitals were discussed. 2. Nine research hypotheses were tested, and the evidence was mixed. 3. Mean outcome rates in Church owned hospitals were significantly better than the other seven groups and definitely not worse. 4. Evidence was mixed for negative association between patient satisfaction and outcomes. 5. Evidence was mixed for negative association between process of care quality and outcomes.

The study found some empirical evidence for encouraging hospitals to adopt the qualities “friendship, compassion, joy of serving and equanimity” advocated by the ancient Vedic physician Charaka as the prime qualities required by healthcare professionals. The study has many strengths such as identifying the principal components of satisfaction and quality, using the complete CMS data on US hospitals and obtaining some empirical evidence on the relationships between satisfaction, process-of-care quality and the outcomes. Some empirical evidence was also obtained on the need for qualities like compassion among healthcare staff.

The study findings are limited by the reliability of the archival data used. Statistical conclusion validity issues were adequately controlled during testing, by adopting diagnostic techniques. However, ambiguity of temporal precedence between outcomes and process of care quality measures is a threat to the internal validity of testing their relationship. A subsequent larger study requiring support from CMS is proposed.

The study findings will assist hospitals in their performance improvement activities.

#### Siu, Chu-Sin — Physiology

Enhancer elements and transcription factors mediating the suppressive effect of IL-1 on CYP1A1 transcriptional activation.

Order No. 9726318

Total P450 content and related activities are known to decrease in cultured rat hepatocytes in response to IL-1 treatment. Previous studies reported that IL-1 suppressed the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 through a transcriptional mechanism. In order to identify the cis-acting element which mediates IL-1 effect, we analyzed the promoter activity of the 5′-flanking region of CYP1A1 gene. Two elements were identified: xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) and HNF-4 binding site. Transient transfection experiment using primary hepatocytes transfected with CAT reporter genes carrying either XRE1 or XRE2 gave direct evidence that XREs can mediate IL-1 action, although the level of AH receptor binding was not affected. By deletion analysis of the 3.1 kb regulatory region of the CYP1A1 gene, a 36 bp IL-1 responsive region was identified. The region is a composite of three distinct sites: XRE, Sp1-like, and IL-1 responsive element (ILRE). Gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that the ILRE binds constitutively a liver-enriched protein designated as IL-1 responsive protein (ILRP), whose binding activity is reduced by IL-1. Antiserum to the rat HNF-4 transcription factor supershifted the DNA-protein complex formed between ILRE and ILRP. Cotransfection with an HNF-4 expression plasmid increased transcriptional activity of the CYP1A1 minimal promoter carrying one copy of ILRE (about 1.7-fold), or three copies of ILRE (about 2.7-fold) in HepG2 cells. These data suggested that ILRP is in fact HNF-4. Although the transactivation potential of HNF-4 is weak in the context of CYP1A1 promoter, its reduced binding activity upon IL-1 treatment suggests that it may mediate IL-1 action in down- regulating CYP1A1 induction. This is the first report that showed the binding activity of HNF-4 can be down-regulated by IL-1. In summary, IL-1 down-regulation of CYP1A1 transcriptional activation is mediated by XREs, however the mechanism by which this occurs is not known. The HNF-4 binding site may also mediate IL-1 action but more direct evidence is needed. Source: DAI, 58, no. 03B, (1997): 1125

#### So, Kam-Tim — Psychology

Testing and developing holistic intelligence in Chinese culture with Maharishi°s Vedic PsychologySM: three experimental replications using Transcendental Meditation.

Order No.9534649

Modern psychology defines intelligence as the ability to learn, reason, adapt, and efficiently accomplish tasks. This dissertation extended this view to the Chinese tradition of holistic intelligence as seen from Maharishi’s Vedic PsychologySM. Maharishi Vedic Psychology posits a universal source called pure intelligence at the basis of personality and nature, which is called the Tao in the Chinese tradition.

This dissertation tested the hypothesis that enlivening the holistic source of pure intelligence/Tao by Maharishi’s Transcendental MeditationŒ (TM) program develops holistic intelligence, optimizing all aspects of mental functioning and personality. Holistic intelligence was operationalized by six culture-fair tests: Test of Creative Thinking (TCT-DP); Contructive Thinking Inventory (CTI); Spielburger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); Inspection Time (IT); Cattell’s Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT); Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), which respectively measure creativity; practical intelligence; anxiety (experiential intelligence); neural efficiency (physiological intelligence); fluid intelligence; and field independence (contextual intelligence).

Three randomized, blind, controlled studies (6-12 months) were conducted with 363 Chinese students, mean age 14.5-17.5. The first study compared TM with Napping, and no-interest subjects. The second study compared TM with Contemplation technique, and control. The third study compared TM with control.

The emergence of 5 to 6 distinct components from factor analyses supported that multiple intelligences exist. MANCOVA showed that the TM groups increased multiple intelligences significantly more than controls in three studies. For the three studies combined, the TM groups improved more than controls on all tests: TCT-DP (p < .000000008); CTI (p < .00009); STAI (p <.00001); IT (p < .0003); CFIT (p <.001); GEFT (p <.00000004). The effect sizes were largest on measures associated with deeper levels of mind, creativity (.77), anxiety (.63), field independence (.58), practical intelligence (.5), inspection time (.46), fluid intelligence (.4); MANCOVA showed that TM increased holistic intelligence more than Contemplation (p <.000001) or Napping (p <.000045).

These findings confirmed that intelligence is holistic and can be developed through regular experience of pure intelligence/Tao through Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation program. They confirm that TM has the ability to simultaneously improve a broad range of mental abilities which has a far-reaching impact on the field of intelligence and education. Source: DAI, 56, no. 06A, (1995): 2178

#### Streicher, Christoph — Physiology

Weight changes of biological and chemical material in a thermodynamically closed system.

Order No. 9318167

The basic research to test the validity of the law of constancy of weight during chemical reactions was done by Landolt /1/, /2/, /3/, Manley /4/. Irregularities in the data of these experiments and the research of Hauschka /6/ on weight changes of sprouting seeds in a thermodynamically closed system suggested a reinvestigation of the question of constancy of weight for chemical reactions and for biological material.The reduction of silver nitrate to metallic silver was chosen as chemical reaction. 3.5 g silver nitrate was reduced in 250-ml gas tight round bottom glass flasks, silver lining the inner glass surface. Sprouting seeds were used in biological experiments. The total weight of the flasks was monitored over several days with an electronic Mettler AE 163 balance, readability 0.1 mg and a mechanical two-pan Volant balance readability 0.2 mg. 25-ml flasks with accordingly smaller silver lining were weighed with and an electronic two-pan Sartorius balance with vacuum capability, readability 1 micro g. Control flasks contained water or glass balls.Extensive artifact research was conducted. Some of the weighings were done under constant temperature and constant relative humidity.Significant deviations from constancy of weight were found in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 mg for the 250-ml flasks and up to 0.06 mg for the 25-ml flasks. For sprouting seeds deviations of the same magnitude were found. Deviations of positive and negative amounts and zero results were obtained. Results were reproduced in blind experiments by five different experimenters. Experiments during eclipses implied a relationship of weight changes with planetary constellations. Source: DAI, 54, no. 03B, (1993): 1449

#### Svenson, Eric Johan — Maharishi Vedic Science

Experiences from Participants in Large-Scale Group Practice of the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs and Parallel Principles of Quantum Theory, Astrophysics, Quantum Cosmology, and String Theory: Interdisciplinary Qualitative Correspondences

Order No. 3704971

Participants on the Invincible America Assembly in Fairfield, Iowa, and neighboring Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa, practicing Maharishi Transcendental Meditation™ (TM) and the TM-Sidhi™ programs in large groups, submitted written experiences that they had had during, and in some cases shortly after, their daily practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs. Participants were instructed to include in their written experiences only what they observed and to leave out interpretation and analysis. These experiences were then read by the author and compared with principles and phenomena of modern physics, particularly with quantum theory, astrophysics, quantum cosmology, and string theory as well as defining characteristics of higher states of consciousness as described by Maharishi Vedic Science. In all cases, particular principles or phenomena of physics and qualities of higher states of consciousness appeared qualitatively quite similar to the content of the given experience. These experiences are presented in an Appendix, in which the corresponding principles and phenomena of physics are also presented. These physics “commentaries” on the experiences were written largely in layman’s terms, without equations, and, in nearly every case, with clear reference to the corresponding sections of the experiences to which a given principle appears to relate. An abundance of similarities were apparent between the subjective experiences during meditation and principles of modern physics. A theoretic framework for understanding these rich similarities may begin with Maharishi’s theory of higher states of consciousness provided herein. We conclude that the consistency and richness of detail found in these abundant similarities warrants the further pursuit and development of such a framework.

#### Tanaka, Toshiaki — Physics

Supersymmetric flavor changing neutral currents: exact amplitudes and phenomenological analysis (squark mass matrices)

Order No. 9323143

I present an exact calculation of the most general supersymmetric amplitudes for $Ksp0-bar{K}sp0$ and $Bsp0- bar{B}sp0$ mixing resulting from gluino box diagrams. I use these amplitudes to place general constraints on the magnitude of off-generational, flavor-changing mass mixings in the squark mass matrices (with arbitrary chirality structures) that can arise both in and beyond the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). I use the renormalization group equations to estimate these mass mixings in the MSSM and in non-minimal supersymmetric models in terms of a general parameterization of universal soft supersymmetry breaking.

I show that while these mass mixings are too small in the MSSM to yield any observable effects, the converse is true in most nontrivial extensions of the MSSM, including supersymmetric GUTs.

In non-minimal supersymmetry, the $Ksb{L}-Ksb{S}$ mass difference in sensitive to such contributions from supersymmetric particles with masses up to 100 TeV (10 TeV for the $Bsb{L}-Bsb{S}$ mass difference), and the CP impurity parameter $epsilonsb{K}$ is sensitive to sparticle masses up to 1000 TeV. I show that supersymmetric CP violation can be predominantly “superweak” (i.e., contribute mainly to $epsilonsb{K}$) or “milliweak” ($epsilonspprime$) depending on the chirality of the off-generational squark mass mixings. The rare decay $bto sgamma$ is less sensitive than the aforementioned constraints, but probes somewhat different squark mass mixings. The lepton number violating decay $muto egamma$ is very sensitive to off-generational slepton mixing for sleptons up to a TeV. All these processes provide valuable information regarding the structure of physics beyond the MSSM pertaining to arbitrarily high mass scales, including the nature of supersymmetry breaking. Source: DAI, 54, no. 04B, (1993): 2024

#### Teifeld, Robert M. — Physiology

Transient superinducibility of cyp1a1 mrna and transcription, and the dna elements responsible for mediating this effect

Order No. 9227181

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-inducible CYP1A subfamily of cytochromes P450 is involved in the oxidative metabolism of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including carcinogens and other environmental contaminants. The expression of one member of the subfamily, the CYP1A1 gene, has previously been shown to be under transcriptional control modulated both by PAH-type inducers and by other factors. CYP1A1 transcription can also be superinduced by simultaneous treatment of certain cells in culture with PAH inducers and inhibitors of protein synthesis. In the present study we demonstrated that some cell types that are highly superinducible can be rendered unresponsive to cycloheximide if its addition is delayed approximately 1.5 hours after the cells are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Teifeld et al., 1989). This phenomenon, termed transient superinducibility, demonstrates that there are two phases to the initial transcriptional response of the CYP1A1 gene to polycyclic aromatic compounds: an early phase, during which inhibition of protein synthesis can augment the effect of inducers, and a later phase, during which inhibition of protein synthesis does not further increase CYP1A1 gene transcription rate. In order to identify the DNA elements which mediate this phenomenon we used chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression vector analysis.

These studies revealed that the region between $-$1.2 and $-$0.9 kb was necessary to mediate transient superinducibility in the NRK cell line. Further experiments with synthesized CYP1A1 sequences showed that the same elements responsible for mediating the inducible expression of the CYP1A1 gene by xenobiotic treatment, the two xenobiotic response elements, XRE1 and XRE2, were sufficient to mediate both superinduction and transient superinducibility. Loss of responsiveness to cycloheximide was correlated with the disappearance of Ah receptor/XRE binding activity from nuclear extracts of induced cells. Source: DAI, 53, no. 06B, (1992): 2700

#### Tomlinson, Philip Ford — Physiology

Superoxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide deactivation, and benzoapyrene chemoprotective activities of a Maharishi Ayurveda food supplement, Maharishi Amrit Kalash.

Order No.9427918

Maharishi Ayurveda, a recent restoration of the traditional health care system of India, upholds Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK)–an herbal fruit concentrate (MAK-4) and an herbal tablet (MAK-5)–as a rasayana, a food supplement which promotes physiological balance, health, and immunity. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities of MAK have been previously demonstrated in biochemical, cell culture, and in vivo studies. In the present investigation, superoxide scavenging and hydrogen peroxide deactivation properties of MAK were quantified in enzymatic assays, and the ability of MAK to scavenge reactive oxygen species within HeLa cells and to protect C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblast-like cells from benzo (a) pyrene transformation was determined.

The superoxide scavenging properties of MAK were investigated with superoxide radicals generated during the catalytic activity of xanthine oxidase. Solutions containing MAK-4 and MAK-S (7.5 and 2.0 mg dry weight of extract/ml) inhibited the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) 96% and 98%, respectively. NBT reduction was decreased 50% by 30 micro g dry weight of extract/ml MAK-4 or 94 micro g dry weight of extract/ml MAK-5. Ascorbic acid inhibition of superoxide radical reduction of NBT reached 88% at 0.176 mg/ml, but declined to 42% at a concentration of 1.76 mg/ml. The rate of uric acid production monitored at 290 nm demonstrated negligible inhibition of xanthine oxidase by MAK-4, MAK-5, or ascorbic acid.

The ability of MAK to deactivate hydrogen peroxide was measured by determining the extent to which MAK inhibited the reduction of scopoletin by H sub 2 O sub 2 generated during the catalytic activity of glucose oxidase. At what appear to be approximately physiological concentrations (0.75 and 0.20 mg dry weight of extract/ml), MAK-4 and MAK-5 inhibited loss of scopoletin fluorescence 79% and 98%, respectively.

In cell culture, extracts from 1 micro g/ml MAK-4 and 10 micro g/ml MAK-5 inhibited the transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells by benzo(a) pyrene 54% and 56%, respectively. Extracts from 20 micro g/ml MAK-4 and 15 micro g/ml MAK-5 inhibited intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by HeLa cells and monitored by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction 12% and 17%, respectively.

The results contribute to an understanding of previously reported anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and anti-aging properties of MAK-4 and MAK-5, and warrant consideration in the light of present preventive, nutritional, and chemotherapeutic approaches to health, antioxidant defense, and carcinogenesis. Source: DAI, 55, no. 06B, (1994): 2120

#### Toomey, Mark — Maharishi Vedic Science

The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Native Hawaiians

Order No. 3269320

Background and objectives. Native Hawaiians have high rates of cardiovascular (CVD) morbidity and mortality compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii. Research has shown that the Transcendental Meditation ® (TM) program reduces CVD risk factors, markers of clinical CVD, and mortality rates in other high-risk populations. This pilot clinical trial evaluated the effects of the TM program on markers of CVD in Native Hawaiians.

Methods. This was a single-blind study conducted over 9 months. Entry criteria included: >=55 years, Hawaiian ancestry, and at least one CVD risk factor. Subjects were randomly assigned to the TM program or health education (HE). Both groups participated in a matched seven-step initial instruction program and follow up group meetings over 9 months. Primary outcome was carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT); secondary outcomes included blood pressure, cholesterol, depression, anxiety, dietary habits and exercise.

Results. Sixty-one subjects who met eligibility criteria were randomized into the study. Forty-eight subjects completed both initial instruction and had complete posttest data (TM, n=25; HE, n=23). Analysis of covariance for these completer subjects showed a non-significant reduction in CIMT in the TM program compared to the control group (-0.010±0.035 mm vs 0.004±0.062 mm; p=0.39). There was a marginally statistically significant reduction in depression in the TM group compared to HE (-1.73±7.46 vs 1.10±7.28; p=0.07). For the high cholesterol subgroup, there was a marginally significant reduction of CIMT in TM subjects (n=14, -0.019 ±0.027 mm) compared to HE (n=17, 0.019±0.068 mm; p=0.07). Within group analysis showed reductions in the TM group for DBP (p<0.05), SBP (p<0.07), total cholesterol (p<0.01), LDL (p<0.01) and total cholesterol (p<0.01) and an increase in HDL (p<0.01); HE showed reductions in LDL (p<0.02) and total cholesterol (p<0.01). Ninety-two percent of the TM subjects and 79% of the HE subjects reported practicing their assigned programs on a regular basis.

Conclusion. The Transcendental Meditation program was feasible to implement and may be useful for the reduction of carotid atherosclerosis and CVD risk factors by enlivening the “body’s inner intelligence.” Future research should include larger sample sizes to increase statistical power to confirm and expand these pilot data.

#### Travis, Frederick T. — Psychology

Testing the field paradigm of Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology: EEG coherence and power as indices of states of consciousness and field effects

Order No. 8820230

Vedic Psychology, as formulated by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, proposes a field paradigm of psychology that links current theories of psychological phenomena with the systematic understanding of a field of pure consciousness from the Vedic tradition. This paradigm hypothesizes that the unified field of natural law described by physics is a field of pure consciousness that can be directly experienced and thoroughly investigated in the simplest form of human awareness through a series of technologies: the Transcendental Meditation (TM) and TM-Sidhi program. This field paradigm was tested with three experiments. The electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern of contact with this field through the TM technique and of acting within it through the TM-Sidhi program were identified. Then the field effect of a TM-Sidhi expert on a non-meditating subject was tested, as measured by the dynamic relationship of their EEG patterns. Source: DAI, 49, no. 08B, (1988): 349

#### Vegors, Susan — Psychology

Transcendental Meditation and individual differences in mental capacity.

Order No.9534649

The practice of the Transcendental MeditationÂ technique is predicted to expand the conscious capacity of the mind (Maharishi, 1963). This dissertation tested the hypothesis that one of two measures of mental capacity in 20th century psychology: mental energy or speed of processing, would be sensitive to the expansion of the conscious capacity of the mind through the TM practice. It also assessed the effect of strategy on performance. Two experiments were conducted using a task with three levels of difficulty: (1) standard P300 oddball task, (2) a tracking task, and (3) distracters, that tested both mental energy and the speed of processing models.

The first experiment compared nonequivalent control and meditating subjects. The most significant finding was a different pattern of loading for the two groups. With increasing task difficulty, the control group exhibited increasing P3 amplitude and latency, while the meditating subjects exhibited decreasing amplitude and smaller latency increases. The second experiment, which used short term and long term meditators found no significant differences between the groups. The data from the two experiments were combined in a post hoc analysis, to address the age confound in the first experiment and to examine the robustness of the TM effect. The two meditating groups loaded similarly on P3 amplitude and latency and together were significantly different from the control subjects.

The different pattern of loading for the TM group could not be accounted for by the mental capacity models in 20th century psychology. Current psychology conceptualizes expanded mental capacity as the number of items an individual can operate on in their mind, or the speed with which they can move betweeen items. In contrast, Maharishi’s Vedic Psychology conceptualizes the expansion of conscious capacity as more powerful thoughts thar are more fully integrated with the depth of the mind. These results suggest that it is an interaction between the internal operations of the mind, discussed in strategy theory, and the external stimulus that determine an individual’s performance. Source: DAI, 56, no. 06B, (1995): 3497

#### Ventura, Louis Luiz — Management

Virtual Work Teams as Self-Organizing Systems: Goals, Empowerment, and Communication as Determinants of Virtual Workers’ Self-Perceived Performance

Order No. 3479904

Information technology has made virtual working environments possible and brought innovation in business processes. Because organizations are becoming more and more engaged with information technology and development of virtual workforces, solving the problem of how to best measure and map virtual workers’ goal setting, empowerment and effective communications within global organizations has become of critical importance. The objective of this empirical study was to determine whether the variables goal setting (G), empowerment (E), and communication (C), both individually and in concert, contributed to improve virtual work performance (vwp).

In this study, the virtual workforce is conceptualized as a self-organizing system. The variables of G, E, and C are the hypothesized predictors of a virtual intelligence (VI) framework that facilitate and support the process of self-organization of the virtual workforce effective performance.

This quantitative study used survey data obtained from an international technology company (ITC). Sample consisted of 113 employees of an ITC in Brazil. The survey provided data for scoring the subjects’ self-perceived virtual work performance, goal setting, empowerment, and communication. The self-reported questionnaire was measured on a Liken scale based on data from a survey instrument with 33 questions. Tests showed that the reliability and validity of the instrument were adequate.

Multiple regression analysis found a significant, positive effect of increased goal setting, empowerment and communication scores on self-assessed virtual worker performance (p=0.001), as well as a significant, positive effect on performance of a simultaneous increase of all three determinants (p=0.001). Sensitivity analysis and extensive diagnostic checks supported the statistical conclusion validity of these empirical findings. Thus, these results provided empirical support for the hypothesis that an increase in goal, empowerment, and communication can enhance performance of virtual workers.

The implications of the findings provided an important step toward developing new strategies for evaluating the effective performance of workers engaged in a virtual environment. Moreover, this study reviews previous research that suggests that incorporating experience of the unified field, pure creative intelligence through the practice of the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation technique by individuals working in teams should have a positive effect on virtual team performance.

#### Vivier, Erika Helene — Physiology

Effects of a multimodal approach of Maharishi consciousness-based health care on carotid atherosclerosis: A study of coronary artery disease patients

Order No. 3131257

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the largest contributor to morbidity and mortality in the world. Over the past 30 years, focus on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and its related risk factors have yielded three major prevention strategies-drug therapies, lifestyle modification and stress reduction therapies. Despite this effort, up to 50% of patients with documented CVD have recurrent cardiac events. A new angle that supports further prevention of CVD is needed. Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care system, a natural, prevention-oriented system of health, includes 40 modalities for enlivening the “inner intelligence of the body,” which are responsible for coordinating diverse physiological systems into an integrated whole. This pilot trial compared effects of four Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care modalities to those of usual care on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in elderly subjects with documented cardiovascular disease and two to six CVD risk factors. The Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care modalities included the Transcendental Meditation program, neuro-physiological integration exercises, dietary and herbal supplement approaches. Usual care included the secondary prevention system offered at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, which are based on practice guidelines promoted by the American Heart Association. Twenty-eight volunteer subjects were matched on age (mean 72 years), gender and severity of documented CVD. Measures were taken for baseline and nine-month posttest. At baseline the experimental group had significantly higher BMI (30 versus 26), triglycerides (177 mg/dl versus 101 mg/dl, and blood pressure (137 versus 120 mm Hg). They were more often single, and had lower income. Covarying for these baseline differences in major CVD risk factors, the experimental group tended to show a greater decrease in mean common carotid IMT after nine months. (Experimental −0.023 mm, Usual Care +0.041 mm, p = 0.07). The IMT regression in the experimental subjects was associated with high compliance. There was a strong correlation between compliance and increases in physical, mental and behavioral strength (r = 0.47), as assessed by Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care procedures. These findings suggest that enlivening ‘the body’s inner intelligence’ could be an effective tool to deal with the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease.

#### Wallace, Peter Gareth — Management

Development economics based on natural law: A comprehensive solution to the five faces of poverty through the principles of Maharishi’s program to eliminate poverty in the world.

Order No. 3130320

Poverty plagues the world, causing extreme suffering for millions of men, women, and children. Governments and institution have striven to eradicate world poverty in the last fifty years with continued overall failure. Despite poverty alleviation efforts, the number of people living in abject poverty in the last decade has increased by 100 million with a fifth (1.2 billion) living below the poverty line for developing nations of $1 a day and almost half (2.8 billion) living on less than$2 a day. Understanding five primary faces of poverty—(1) material well-being, (2) health, (3) education, (4) vulnerability, and (5) powerlessness—highlights the need for a comprehensive solution.

This study analyzes a new paradigm toward development economics presented by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. It reviews Maharishi’s Program to Eliminate Poverty in the World in light of the five faces of poverty. Maharishi’s program offers a unique approach to permanently eradicate world poverty through Consciousness-Based, Natural Law-Based, human and agricultural development. Maharishi locates the source of poverty in violation of Natural Law caused by lack of adequate education. The solution lies in Consciousness-Based education, which teaches all disciplines of knowledge in light of the experience and understanding of the Unified Field of Natural Law, pure consciousness, the Self. The program addresses poverty through Maharishi Vedic Economy, emphasizing the development of individual consciousness toward higher states of consciousness and developing coherence in collective consciousness to train the poor to function in harmony with Natural Law. Scientific research documenting the effectiveness of Maharishi Vedic Technologies—the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs and the Maharishi Effect—is summarized for each face of poverty, supporting the program’s Consciousness-Based human and agricultural development approaches toward poverty removal.

This dissertation identifies 11 key principles of Maharishi Vedic Economy and the strengths and opportunities of Maharishi’s program. It contrasts principles of the program with principles from development economics. The analysis concludes that Maharishi’s program, based on fundamental Vedic Principles, provides a comprehensive and synergistic approach toward eradicating the five faces of poverty. Maharishi’s Program to Eliminate Poverty in the World is recommended to every nation, particularly those suffering abject poverty.

#### Wegman, Keith Stewart — Maharishi Vedic Science

Applying the principal educational methodology of Maharishi Vedic Science — the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi’s program of reading the Vedic literature — for accelerated development of higher states of consciousness characterized by life in accord with natural law

Order No. 3130321

This dissertation presents the theoretical understanding and application of a holistic educational methodology utilizing the Maharishi Transcendental MeditationSM program and a program of reading the Vedic Literature as formulated by His Holiness Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. These two programs represent the principal educational methodology of Maharishi Vedic ScienceSM, an integrated science based on the ancient Vedic understanding of Natural Law. The goal of this methodology is the full development of human life in higher states of consciousness, characterized by individual thought, speech, and action in complete accord with all the Laws of Nature governing the evolution of life throughout the universe. This dissertation outlines the theoretical principles underlying this methodology and documents the profound personal development that occurred through its application over nearly seven years as part of a doctoral-level research program.

The theoretical foundations of this educational methodology are located in Maharishi Vedic Science, which describes a universal level of intelligence or Natural Law, known as atma, underlying all forms and phenomena throughout the universe, including the human mind and body. It describes in detail how this underlying intelligence manifests into the vast universe as frequencies of intelligence, known as the vrittis of atma, the Veda and Vedic Literature, and indicates the relationship of these frequencies to the individual physiology and all thought, speech and action.

The Transcendental Meditation® technique is an easy and systematic procedure which allows the conscious mind to settle down in the simplest state of awareness and directly experience its essential nature, atma, what physiologists have determined is a fourth major state of consciousness. Scientific research indicates that the regular experience of this state leads to growth of higher states of consciousness characterized by increased fulfillment and more refined functioning of the nervous system. Recitation of the Vedic Literature for its phonetic value is a technology that accelerates this development by extending and integrating the direct experience of atma into the development of all thought, speech and action. These two technologies represent the foundation of an educational system that can deliver the ability to make full use of Natural Law for profound individual development and social progress.

#### Weller, Richard K — Physics

Dynamical analysis of human EEG: A comparative study of different states of wakefulness

Order Number: 304091312

This thesis documents an application of dynamical time series analysis to human EEG recorded in different states of wakefulness. In this study, the assumed brain dynamics were reconstructed using a multi-lead algorithm applied to data from six simultaneously recorded channels. A version of the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm was used to compute estimates of the correlation dimension of the resulting attractors.

The EEG signals were taken from four subjects during a variety of mental states including eyes-open rest, eyes-closed rest, simple problem-solving, and the Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Previous studies using spectral analysis suggest that distinct patterns of high spatial coherence in the EEG are characteristic of the TM technique. Since brain dynamics are almost certainly nonlinear, this study investigated dynamical methods as a complement to spectral analysis in EEG research.

#### Wenneberg, Roland S — Physiology

The effects of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, anger/hostility, and platelet aggregation

Order No. 9421866

In addition to traditional risk factors, psychosocial stress such as Type A behavior pattern, anger and hostility, and increased cardiovascular reactivity to stress have been proposed as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, stress reduction approaches such as Transcendental Meditation (TM) may be useful in modifying these behavioral factors.

Forty normotensive volunteers were pretested and posttested for cardiovascular reactivity to a standard battery of laboratory stressors, underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during the day, and were tested for levels of anger, hostility, and platelet aggregation. They were randomly assigned to either TM or a cognitive-based Stress Education Class (SEC) control group. Both treatment groups involved similar instructional attention and daily practice.

After a four-month treatment period, no significant differences were found between the two treatment groups in cardiovascular reactivity or in average cardiovascular levels in the laboratory or in the field. However, the regular TM practitioners demonstrated increased systolic blood pressure reactivity to the preparation of a speech and to the speech task itself. In addition, the regular TM practitioners also demonstrated a significant reduction in average ambulatory diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences in platelet aggregation, anger or hostility were found between the two groups, except that the SEC group had lower outwardly expressed anger. Among all subjects of the study, significant positive correlations were found between outwardly expressed anger and collagen- induced platelet aggregation, and heart rate reactivity.

These results show that it is possible to decrease average ambulatory blood pressure levels without decreasing cardiovascular reactivity in normotensive subjects with the regular practice of TM. This finding supports the hypothesis that tonic (average) and reactive blood pressure are largely independently regulated and therefore can be differentially modified by behavioral treatment. Since average ambulatory blood pressure is a better predictor of cardiovascular complications of hypertension than clinic blood pressure, this finding may have implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Data from this study also suggest mechanisms whereby stress may be translated into coronary heart disease, i.e., anger may increase coronary heart disease through its association with platelet aggregation and heart rate reactivity. Source: DAI, 55, no. 06B, (1994): 2120

#### Wenuganen, Supaya — Physiology

Anti-Aging Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program: Analysis of Ojas Level and Global Gene Expression

Order No. 3630467

This study used a cross–sectional approach to explore the anti–aging effect of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. Ojas level was measured through pulse diagnosis on four groups of participants: Young (20–30 years old) TM practitioners, Young Non–TM controls, Elderly (55–70 years) TM practitioners, and Elderly Non–TM controls. The Global Gene Expression profile from blood cells, using the Illumina DNA microarray system, was conducted for 6 subjects from the elderly control group that were matched to 6 subjects from the elderly TM group. Fifteen of the seventy–four genes showing differential gene expression (p ≤ ·05, fold change ≥ 2) between the elderly TM and the elderly control groups were selected for validation using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This validation was performed in three groups: the elderly TM group (N = 23), the elderly control group (N = 21), and the young control group (N = 19). The qPCR output was measured as the threshold cycle (Ct) for p values and fold changes.

For ojas, an interaction was found between the variables “age” and “TM” (F (1,111) = ·731, p = ·018). The Transcendental Meditation subjects in both the young and the elderly groups had higher levels of ojas than their respective controls (t (58) = 3·151, p = ·003); (t (53) = 4·909, p < ·001). </p>

Global gene expression analysis indicated that the Transcendental Meditation program affects the following networks: Hematopoiesis, Cell–to–Cell Signaling and Interaction, Cell Death and Survival, Tumor Morphology, Telomerase Signaling, and Tissue Morphology. The qPCR validated that 7 genes (AHSP, p = ·002; ALOX12, p = ·086; ITGB3, p = ·066; ITGB5, p = ·022; LMNA, p = ·074; SOCS3, p = ·001; and TAL1, p = ·076) were down–regulated and CXCL10 (p = ·001) was up–regulated in the elderly TM group compared to the elderly control group. AHSP and CXCL10 appeared to be biomarkers for a Transcendental Meditation effect. ITGB5 and SOCS3 appeared to be biomarkers for a Transcendental Meditation–induced anti–aging effect. These findings suggest the Transcendental Meditation program creates major clinical benefits that maintain good health into old age.

#### Windenberger, Claude — Physics

Decoherence, two-mode squeezing and quantum noise reduction in a cavity Raman laser

Order No. 9633804

In this dissertation, we study squeezing for the Stokes and Anti-Stokes fields generated in a model of a single-mode Raman laser in a loss-less cavity with classical pump and unsaturated medium, for arbitrary homogeneous broadening and dispersion. Generalizing the notion of two-mode squeezing to allow for arbitrary linear combinations of the two modes in the definition of the quadrature variables, we find that the two output modes, for this general notion, always exhibit quadrature squeezing with noise reduction below the vacuum level. We also discuss our results and the general area of quantum optics in terms of the structures of intelligence as presented in Maharishi’s Vedic Science. Finally, we report on a practical aspect of our dissertation research, the “European Alliance with Natural Law Project”, whose purpose was to introduce Maharishi’s programs, as presented in “Maharishi’s Master Plan to Create Heaven on Earth”, to our hometown Strasbourg, France, and in particular to the European Parliament located there. Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B (1996): p. 3823

#### Wolfson, Richard M. — Physics

Generation and propagation of Raman solitons at high intensity

Order No. 8921896

This research is a theoretical study of the generation and propagation of solitons in stimulated Raman scattering at high intensity. This study extends previous research by incorporating, in particular, effects of the Stark shift and medium saturation, in addition to the detuning of the fields off medium resonance and the broadening of the Raman linewidth due to collisions in the medium (collisional coherence decay). The main result is that by balancing the above effects, the maximum pump intensity can increase over propagation even with damping from collisional coherence decay.

The research employs both numerical and analytic techniques. The analytic method from soliton perturbation theory assumes soliton solutions of the damped equations to be of the one-soliton form as functions of time. Good agreement is found between the analytic results and direct numerical integration. Source: DAI, 50, no. 06B, (1989): 2475

#### Xu, Chuanli — Physiology

Transcriptional suppression of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene is under redox regulation – Ah receptor-mediated processes with distinct mechanisms.

Order No. 9726319

Oxidative stress in a cell is defined as an unusually high level of reactive oxygen species which can be caused by a number of stimuli. We have investigated the molecular mechanism whereby transcriptional expression of CYP1A1 gene was regulated by redox potential. XRE was found to be the response element by which H(sub 2) O(sub 2) exhibited its inhibitory effect on the transcription of CYP1A1 gene in Hepa 1 cell line using transient transfection technique. However, H(sub 2) O(sub 2) did not alter the DNA binding activity of the Ah receptor. Further study demonstrated that modulation of XRE enhancer strength by various means could modify H(sub 2) O(sub 2)-dependent suppression of CAT expression. The results from this study suggest the presence of a protein that inhibits transactivation by the Ah receptor without influencing its DNA binding ability. In search for the candidate protein(s) which mediated H(sub 2) O(sub 2) action on Ah receptor function, we first demonstrated that overexpression of the product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB) downregulated transcription of the CYP1A1 gene. XREs alone were sufficient to mediate RB action. Results from coimmunoprecipitation assays indicated that the Ah receptor coprecipitated with the RB protein or its family member p107 and vice versa. Similar to other RB binding proteins, the Ah receptor only bound to the hypophosphorylated form of RB or p107 protein. To further characterize regulation of CYP1A1 by redox potential, more powerful and more specific oxidants were used to oxidize vicinal sulfhydryl groups in intact Hepa 1 cells. Pretreatment with diamide or phenylarsine oxide for 20 minutes rapidly prevented the formation of ligand-dependent Ah receptor/XRE complex and thus inhibited XRE-mediated luciferase expression. Direct oxidization of the Ah receptor by PAO was further demonstrated by the experiments in which DTT, a reducing agent, could restore the Ah receptor DNA binding activity. Finally, a one hundred-fold difference in the effectiveness between dithiol 2,3-dimercaptopropanol and monothiol 2- mercaptoethanol in reversing PAO-dependent inhibition of Ah receptor DNA binding activity suggests that vicinal sulfhydryl residues may be involved in the DNA binding of Ah receptor. Source: DAI, 58, no. 03B, (1997): 1130

#### Yang, Mingfang — Management

Confucian-based Theory of Management: A Qualitative Study of Chinese Mid-level Managers

Order No. 3523285

Recent scholarship about managing in China has argued that a Chinese management theory needs to be developed in a Chinese Confucianism-based context. In the past centuries, Confucianism had influenced Chinese people dramatically. In order to understand Chinese employees in workplace, taking Confucianism into account was a necessary step. However, the majority of companies in China took and adapted Western-based management theories to deal with their Chinese employees. Empowerment is a Western-based management theory, which is different from the concept of authority in Confucianism. This study used a qualitative approach to explore that how Chinese mid-level managers think about and cooperate with their managers (Chinese and expatriate managers) in the workplace. Data was collected through 14 interviews with Chinese mid-level managers in two types of companies in China – Chinese-based companies and foreign-invested companies. Interview responses were coded in categories through several revisions. “The Analects of Confucius” was reviewed in order to get a better understanding of Confucian values, and specific values from the Analects were matched to each of the categories. The final result of data analysis was a framework of 11 principles. Ten principles were found to be common to both types of companies. An eleventh principle, trust, was different for mid-level managers with foreign superiors than for those with Chinese superiors. The results of this research suggested that Confucian values still have a strong impact on Chinese people’s behaviors, so in order to manage Chinese employees effectively, it is necessary to understand Confucian values. Based on the results, a Confucian-based management framework was constructed to guide managers to be effective in working with employees in China and all the countries have been influenced by Confucianism. This study created a greater picture for the managers (Chinese and expatriate managers) to understand the Confucian-based behaviors of Chinese employees in the workplace and might lead to more effective management results. It might also contribute to develop of a Chinese theory of management – grounded in qualitative evidences from managers in China.

#### Yang, Zhe — Management

The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Financial Performance: Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies

Order No. 10828948

The present research aims to explore the empirical relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) in China using a sample of 608 firms in 2015. Using data from 2014 to 2016 for these same companies, this study also examines if prior CSR was associated with subsequent CFP and if prior CFP was associated with subsequent CSR. Data from RKS, a Chinese ranking agency, was used to measure CSR. The financial performance measures used were return on assets (ROA) and earning per share (EPS), based on data from the CSMAR database of audited financial statements of companies traded on the Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges.

Sequential regression analysis was used to test the relationship between total CSR rating scores from RKS database and ROA and EPS in the same year, 2015, with control variable of firm size. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between CSR and CFP. Whether a relationship exists between prior social responsibility in 2014 and subsequent financial performance in 2016, and also between prior financial performance in 2014 and subsequent CSR performance in 2016, have also been tested by linear sequential regression analysis. These results found that prior CSR was associated with subsequent ROA and EPS, and also that better prior ROA were associated with greater subsequent CSR. There was no relationship between prior EPS and subsequent CSR. Additionally, Pearson correlation was used to examine the correlation between two Chinese CSR agencies, RKS and CASS; the results showed that there is a moderate correlation (r = 39.6) between them. The final chapter of this dissertation presents a theoretical discussion of consciousness-based, authentic vision and values as the foundations of responsible management which can lead to both CSR and CFP.

#### Yucel, Hulya Gunes — Psychology

The effects of the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique and exercise on cognitive and psychophysiological measures in the elderly

Order No. 3013167

Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of interventions-the Transcendental Meditation™ technique and exercise (EX)-on a set of cognitive and psychophysiological measures in elderly people.

In Experiment 1, 25 healthy elderly people aged 65 to 90 years (8 males) were assigned one of three conditions: usual care, TM or EX. Cognitive performance was assessed using the following measures: the Mini-Mental State Examination, Digitspan (forward and backward), Verbal-Paired Associate (immediate and delayed), the Logical Memory (immediate and delayed), Benton Visual Retention, Block Design, Digit Symbol, Stroop Color-Word, the Group Embedded Figures, Vocabulary, and the Inference tests. Mental speed of processing (P300 latency and reaction time) were measured from three visual tasks [two two-button-pressing both the target (20%) and the standards and counting the target (20%)]. There were no significant differences among groups on pretest measures. No differences were found among the groups on any of the variables after 12 months.

#### Zhang, Zi Yan — Management

The Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Evidence from China

Order No. 10137553

Abstract Meta-analyses concerning the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) have generally found a positive relationship. Yet some studies have found that there is a negative or no relationship. The present research aims to explore the CSR-CFP relationship in the context of China, where prior research has been inconclusive and has had methodological limitations.

This study used a knowledgeable ranking agency — the Research Center of Corporate Social Responsibility Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) – to measure four dimensions of CSR. The financial performance measures used were return on assets, return on equity and Tobin’s Q. The research was conducted on the 300 companies which had 2013 CASS-CSR reports and also had public financial performance data for the same year.

Sequential regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that CSR would be associated with the financial performance controlling for industry and firm size. This analysis found no significant relationship between CSR and financial performance. Furthermore, this study also employed ANCOVA to examine whether there is a difference in financial performance between companies that disclose the CSR information and companies that do not disclose. The findings revealed that the companies which had completed CASS-CSR reports have significantly a better financial performance in return on assets, return on equity and Tobin’s Q compared to the companies which did not complete CASS-CSR reports.

Why was a relationship not found in this study of Chinese companies? The first possible explanation is that CSR reports in China can be symbolic gestures to create goodwill with government. The relatively low CSR mean scores seen in our data suggest that the CSR practice of these companies is not highly developed. The second possible explanation that CSR-CFP relationship between is less evident in developing world because CSR in the developed world will be more visible with a relatively mature institutional system and efficient market mechanism. Further research using data from years after 2013 can investigate if CSR performance is improving over time and if a positive CSR-CFP relationship emerges as market forces evolve.

#### Zhao, Jiangning — Management

The effect of the ISO-14001 environmental management system on corporate financial performance

Order No. 9605337

This study employed a quasi-experimental design to compare the experimental group (ISO companies) with the matched control group (non-ISO companies) on the effect of ISO-14001 registration (independent variable) on financial performance (three dependent variables): return on revenue (ROR), return on assets (ROA), and operating revenue (OPR).

This study also examined the effects of early adoption, length of registration, and size of companies on the relationship between ISO registration and financial performance.

The distribution of data on ISO registration indicated that industries with higher level of resources consumption, or industries with higher levels of pollution (i.e., auto industry 8.88%, chemical industry 8.41%, machinery industry 7.01%, and semiconductors industry 6.54%) were more likely to register for ISO-14001.

The experimental group (ISO companies) consisted of the 81 companies from the S&P large cap, mid cap, and small cap indices, which had at least one ISO certificate and for whom at least five years of financial data were available.

This study employed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) as the main tool for statistical analysis. Baseline financial data of two years before registration (T – 2) was used to adjust change scores between T – 2 and T + 2. In addition, because of the violation of equal slope on OPR (for T + 2: F=2.2477, F*=1.9751), multiple analyses of variance (MANOVA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were also used.

Statistical analyses indicated that registration of ISO-14001 EMS led to lower ROR (p=0.012, N=162, α=0.05); lower ROA (p=0.041, N=162, α=0.05), and no change in OPR (p=0.3689, N=162, α=0.05). Early adoption, length of ISO registration, and size of company did not affect the relationship of ISO registration and financial performance.

It appears that implementation of ISO-14001 introduced expenses and inefficiency during the period studied. Further research is suggested for more in depth investigation on the quality of implementation of ISO-14001 EMS, rather than a simple test of the adoption. A model is presented proposing that when EMS is supported by environmental awareness, it will be integrated in business management in a way that can have triple-bottom-line impacts.

#### Ziegler, Veronique — Physics

Testing grand unified theories using gauge coupling unification and proton decay

Order No. 9633805

We test the validity of Grand Unified Theories by the simultaneous constraints from proton decay and gauge coupling unification. For minimal supersymmetric SU(5), we obtain a strict bound $alphasb3 > 0.117,$ which is above measurements of $alphasb3$ from deep inelastic scattering and the charmonium spectrum by more than 3$sigma.$ This signals the failure of the minimal SU(5) model. The dismissal of ordinary SU(5) gives a strong incentive to investigate flipped supersymmetric SU(5) $times$ U(1). A careful analysis, including all threshold effects, indicates that the parameter space of flipped supersymmetric SU(5) $times$ U(1) is compatible with experimental range. We obtain an upper bound on the splitting between the heavy mass-scales $Msb{Dsp{c}}$ and $Msb{X}$, of the order of 10$sp4$. We find gravitational perturbations affecting predictions from the level of the Planck scale to be negligible. An attempt to increase the superunification scale, $Msb{SU}$, via the mass of the right handed neutrino, gives us a value for $Msb{SU}$ still short of the string scale. Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B (1996): p.3814